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      Coupled Plasma Filtration Adsorption: Rationale, Technical Development and Early Clinical Experience

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          Abstract

          The adjuvant treatment of sepsis remains a major therapeutic challenge. Blood purification is theoretically appealing if the humoral theory of sepsis is accepted as the basis for intervention. In this setting, blood purification would provide a broad-based restoration of humoral homeostasis thereby avoiding both excessive inflammation and counterinflammation. Several techniques of blood purification have been tried or are under active investigation. One of these is the so-called coupled plasma filtration adsorption (CPFA). CPFA is a novel extracorporeal blood purification therapy aimed at nonselectively reducing the circulating levels and activities of both pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators during sepsis and multiorgan failure. In vitro studies have shown CPFA to be effective in binding a broad range of such mediators proving its technical efficacy. Subsequent animal models have shown a beneficial effect on survival in endotoxemia. These studies have provided the necessary technical developments and biologic rationale for initial human studies. Two phase I/IIa clinical studies have now been performed. Both studies have shown that CPFA improves blood pressure and restores immune function in patients with severe sepsis and multiorgan dysfunction. In this article, we will discuss some of the basic principles involved in sorbent technology, and how these may contribute to treatment efficacy, review animal experiments with CPFA and finally discuss the results of recent human studies and their implications.

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          Most cited references 10

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          A pilot study of coupled plasma filtration with adsorption in septic shock.

          To test the hypothesis that nonselective plasma adsorption by a hydrophobic resin (coupled plasmafiltration and adsorption) could improve hemodynamics and restore leukocyte responsiveness in patients with septic shock. Prospective, pilot, crossover clinical trial. General intensive care unit in a teaching hospital. Ten patients with hyperdynamic septic shock. Patients were randomly allocated to 10 hrs of either coupled plasma filtration adsorption plus hemodialysis (treatment A) or continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (treatment B) in random order. We measured the change in mean arterial pressure, norepinephrine requirements, and leukocyte tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production (both spontaneous and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated) after 10 hrs of each treatment. We also tested TNF-alpha production from normal human adherent monocytes incubated with patients' plasma obtained before and after the resin, both with or without incubation with an anti-interleukin-10 monoclonal antibody. Mean arterial pressure increased after 10 hr by 11.8 mm Hg with treatment A and by 5.5 mm Hg with treatment B (p =.001). There was an average decrease of norepinephrine requirement of 0.08 microg/kg/min with treatment A and 0.0049 microg/kg/min with treatment B (p =.003). All patients but one survived. Spontaneous and lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha production from patients' whole blood increased over time with treatment A. This increase was more marked in blood drawn after the device (plasmafiltrate-sorbent plus hemodialyzer) (p =.009). Preresin plasma suppressed lipopolysaccharide-stimulated production of TNF-alpha by 1 x 10(6)cultured adherent monocytes from healthy donors. This suppressive effect was significantly reduced after passage of plasma through the resin (p =.019) and after incubation with anti-interleukin-10 monoclonal antibodies (p =.028). In patients with septic shock, coupled plasmafiltration-adsorption combined with hemodialysis was associated with improved hemodynamics compared with continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration. This result might be related to its ability to restore leukocyte responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide. These findings suggest a potential role for blood purification in the treatment of septic shock.
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            Coupled plasma filtration-adsorption in a rabbit model of endotoxic shock.

            To test the hypothesis that nonselective adsorption by a hydrophobic resin of cytokines and other proinflammatory mediators could improve 72-hr survival in a rabbit model of endotoxic shock. Prospective, randomized, controlled animal trial. Animal care facility at a research institution. A total of 109 New Zealand white male rabbits. Anesthetized rabbits were cannulated with indwelling femoral arterial and venous lines. Septic shock was induced by a single intravenous injection of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. The dose was experimentally assessed in 40 rabbits receiving 1.0, 0.5, 0.1, and 0.05 mg/kg body weight to determine LD80 at 72 hrs. Extracorporeal circulation consisted of plasma filtration coupled with passage of the plasma filtrate through a hydrophobic sorbent and reinfusion into the venous line. The extracorporeal treatment lasted for 3 hrs. Rabbits injected with endotoxin (0.05 mg/kg) were submitted to plasma filtration with (19 rabbits) or without (20 rabbits) sorbent adsorption. As controls, rabbits injected with vehicle alone were treated with plasma filtration (ten rabbits) or without (ten rabbits) sorbent adsorption. Ten rabbits were monitored under anesthesia to determine basal survival. Plasma concentrations of endotoxin, bioactive tumor necrosis factor, resin-adsorbed platelet-activating factor, mean arterial pressure, base excess, and white cell count were assessed and a global severity score was established. At 72 hrs, cumulative survival was significantly (p = .0041) improved in septic rabbits treated with coupled plasma filtration-adsorption. Circulating tumor necrosis factor bioactivity remained similar in control and treated rabbits. Biologically significant amounts of platelet activating factor were eluted from the sorbent during the entire treatment time. The severity score inversely correlated with survival (p < .001). Coupled plasma filtration-adsorption improved survival in a rabbit model of endotoxic shock. Coupled plasma filtration-adsorption may be an extracorporeal treatment capable of removing structurally different inflammatory mediators associated with sepsis.
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              Continuous plasmafiltration in sepsis syndrome

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2003
                2003
                03 November 2003
                : 21
                : 6
                : 409-416
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Nephrology, St. Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza, and bScientific Research Department, Bellco SpA, Mirandola, Italy; cDepartment of Intensive Care, Austin & Repatriation Medical Centre, Melbourne, Australia
                Article
                73444 Blood Purif 2003;21:409–416
                10.1159/000073444
                14586184
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, References: 26, Pages: 8
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/73444
                Categories
                Original Paper

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