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      Apolipoprotein E4 impairs spontaneous blood brain barrier repair following traumatic brain injury

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          Abstract

          Background

          Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a major cause of disability and mortality, to which there is currently no comprehensive treatment. Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) dysfunction is well documented in human TBI patients, yet the molecular mechanisms that underlie this neurovascular unit (NVU) pathology remains unclear. The apolipoprotein-E (apoE) protein has been implicated in controlling BBB integrity in an isoform dependent manner, via suppression of Cyclophilin A (CypA)–Matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9) signaling cascades, however the contribution of this pathway in TBI-induced BBB permeability is not fully investigated.

          Methods

          We exposed C57Bl/6 mice to controlled cortical impact and assessed NVU and BBB permeability responses up to 21 days post-injury. We pharmacologically probed the role of the CypA-MMP-9 pathway in BBB permeability after TBI using Cyclosporin A (CsA, 20 mg/kg). Finally, as the apoE4 protein is known to be functionally deficient compared to the apoE3 protein, we used humanized APOE mice as a clinically relevant model to study the role of apoE on BBB injury and repair after TBI.

          Results

          In C57Bl/6 mice there was an inverse relationship between soluble apoE and BBB permeability, such that damaged BBB stabilizes as apoE levels increase in the days following TBI. TBI mice displayed acute pericyte loss, increased MMP-9 production and activity, and reduced tight-junction expression. Treatment with the CypA antagonist CsA in C57Bl/6 mice attenuates MMP-9 responses and enhances BBB repair after injury, demonstrating that MMP-9 plays an important role in the timing of spontaneous BBB repair after TBI. We also show that apoe mRNA is present in both astrocytes and pericytes after TBI.

          We report that APOE3 and APOE4 mice have similar acute BBB responses to TBI, but APOE3 mice display faster spontaneous BBB repair than APOE4 mice. Isolated microvessel analysis reveals delayed pericyte repopulation, augmented and sustained MMP-9 expression at the NVU, and impaired stabilization of Zonula Occludens-1, Occludin and Claudin-5 expression at tight junctions in APOE4 mice after TBI compared to APOE3 mice.

          Conclusions

          These data confirm apoE as an important modulator of spontaneous BBB stabilization following TBI, and highlights the APOE4 allele as a risk factor for poor outcome after TBI.

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          Most cited references 66

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          Accelerated pericyte degeneration and blood-brain barrier breakdown in apolipoprotein E4 carriers with Alzheimer's disease.

          The blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits the entry of neurotoxic blood-derived products and cells into the brain that is required for normal neuronal functioning and information processing. Pericytes maintain the integrity of the BBB and degenerate in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The BBB is damaged in AD, particularly in individuals carrying apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) gene, which is a major genetic risk factor for late-onset AD. The mechanisms underlying the BBB breakdown in AD remain, however, elusive. Here, we show accelerated pericyte degeneration in AD APOE4 carriers >AD APOE3 carriers >non-AD controls, which correlates with the magnitude of BBB breakdown to immunoglobulin G and fibrin. We also show accumulation of the proinflammatory cytokine cyclophilin A (CypA) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in pericytes and endothelial cells in AD (APOE4 >APOE3), previously shown to lead to BBB breakdown in transgenic APOE4 mice. The levels of the apoE lipoprotein receptor, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1), were similarly reduced in AD APOE4 and APOE3 carriers. Our data suggest that APOE4 leads to accelerated pericyte loss and enhanced activation of LRP1-dependent CypA-MMP-9 BBB-degrading pathway in pericytes and endothelial cells, which can mediate a greater BBB damage in AD APOE4 compared with AD APOE3 carriers.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 11 March 2015; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2015.44.
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            Strategies to advance translational research into brain barriers.

            There is a paucity of therapies for most neurological disorders--from rare lysosomal storage diseases to major public health concerns such as stroke and Alzheimer's disease. Advances in the targeting of drugs to the CNS are essential for the future success of neurotherapeutics; however, the delivery of many potentially therapeutic and diagnostic compounds to specific areas of the brain is restricted by the blood-brain barrier, the blood-CSF barrier, or other specialised CNS barriers. These brain barriers are now recognised as a major obstacle to the treatment of most brain disorders. The challenge to deliver therapies to the CNS is formidable, and the solution will require concerted international efforts among academia, government, and industry. At a recent meeting of expert panels, essential and high-priority recommendations to propel brain barrier research forward in six topical areas were developed and these recommendations are presented here.
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              Synergistic effects of traumatic head injury and apolipoprotein-epsilon 4 in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

              The apolipoprotein-epsilon 4 allele increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but cerebral deposition of beta-amyloid with age, a genetic mutation, or head injury may contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease. We examined the risks of AD associated with traumatic head injury and apolipoprotein-epsilon 4 in 236 community-dwelling elderly persons. A 10-fold increase in the risk of AD was associated with both apolipoprotein-epsilon 4 and a history of traumatic head injury, compared with a two-fold increase in risk with apolipoprotein-epsilon 4 alone. Head injury in the absence of an apolipoprotein-epsilon 4 allele did not increase risk. These data imply that the biological effects of head injury may increase the risk of AD, but only through a synergistic relationship with apolipoprotein-epsilon 4.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                bsm53@georgetown.edu
                Sonia.Villapol@georgetown.edu
                sss256@georgetown.edu
                barton.david@medstudent.pitt.edu
                maia.parsadanian@nih.gov
                ca613@georgetown.edu
                kas288@georgetown.edu
                msm302@georgetown.edu
                rodriguo@georgetown.edu
                202-687-4735 , mpb37@georgetown.edu
                Journal
                Mol Neurodegener
                Mol Neurodegener
                Molecular Neurodegeneration
                BioMed Central (London )
                1750-1326
                4 April 2018
                4 April 2018
                2018
                : 13
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2186 0438, GRID grid.411667.3, Laboratory for Brain Injury and Dementia, Department of Neuroscience, , Georgetown University Medical Center, ; Washington, DC 20057 USA
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2186 0438, GRID grid.411667.3, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Oncology, , Georgetown University Medical Center, ; Washington, DC 20057 USA
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2186 0438, GRID grid.411667.3, Department of Neuroscience, , Georgetown University Medical Center, ; New Research Building-EG11, 3970 Reservoir Rd, NW, Washington, D.C 20057 USA
                Article
                249
                10.1186/s13024-018-0249-5
                5885297
                29618365
                © The Author(s). 2018

                Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000065, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke;
                Award ID: R01NS067417
                Award ID: R03NS095038
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (US)
                Award ID: The Advanced Rehabilitation Research and Training Program (90AR5005)
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Neurosciences

                apolipoprotein e, blood brain barrier, neurovascular unit, pericyte, mmp-9, cd31, lectin, tbi

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