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      Diagnostic Values of Epicardial Adipose Tissue Thickness with Right Common Carotid Artery Elasticity and Intima-Media Thickness for Middle-Aged and Elderly Patients with Coronary Heart Disease

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          Abstract

          Background

          Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common cardiovascular disease which greatly threatens the health of middle-aged and elderly people.

          Objective

          To explore the correlations of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness with right common carotid artery elasticity and intima-media thickness (IMT) in middle-aged and elderly patients with CHD by ultrasound.

          Methods

          A total of 132 patients diagnosed with CHD by coronary angiography (CAG) from February 2019 to August 2020 were enrolled and divided into single-vessel disease group (n=38), double-vessel disease group (n=52), and three-vessel disease group (n=42), and 52 healthy subjects were selected as control group. Their general data, biochemical indices, EAT thickness, right common carotid artery elasticity indices, and IMT were compared. The correlations of EAT thickness with right common carotid artery elasticity indices and IMT were studied by Pearson’s analysis. The predictive values of EAT thickness and IMT for CHD were analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curves.

          Results

          With increasing number of diseased branches, EAT thickness, stiffness parameters β (β), strain elastic modulus (Ep), pulse wave velocity β (PWV-β) and IMT increased, arterial compliance (AC) decreased (P<0.05), but argumentation index (AI) did not change significantly. EAT thickness had significant positive correlations with β, Ep, PWV-β and IMT, negative correlation with AC, and no significant correlation with AI. The areas under the curves of EAT thickness and IMT for predicting CHD were 0.806 and 0.784, respectively.

          Conclusion

          EAT thickness is significantly correlated with right common carotid artery elasticity and IMT in middle-aged and elderly patients with CHD, and EAT thickness and IMT have high predictive values. The three indices are crucial for CHD diagnosis.

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          Most cited references25

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          Echocardiographic epicardial fat: a review of research and clinical applications.

          Epicardial fat plays a role in cardiovascular diseases. Because of its anatomic and functional proximity to the myocardium and its intense metabolic activity, some interactions between the heart and its visceral fat depot have been suggested. Epicardial fat can be visualized and measured using standard two-dimensional echocardiography. Standard parasternal long-axis and short-axis views permit the most accurate measurement of epicardial fat thickness overlying the right ventricle. Epicardial fat thickness is generally identified as the echo-free space between the outer wall of the myocardium and the visceral layer of pericardium and is measured perpendicularly on the free wall of the right ventricle at end-systole. Echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness ranges from a minimum of 1 mm to a maximum of almost 23 mm. Echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness clearly reflects visceral adiposity rather than general obesity. It correlates with metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, coronary artery disease, and subclinical atherosclerosis, and therefore it might serve as a simple tool for cardiometabolic risk prediction. Substantial changes in echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness during weight-loss strategies may also suggest its use as a marker of therapeutic effect. Echocardiographic epicardial fat measurement in both clinical and research scenarios has several advantages, including its low cost, easy accessibility, rapid applicability, and good reproducibility. However, more evidence is necessary to evaluate whether echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness may become a routine way of assessing cardiovascular risk in a clinical setting.
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            Telehealth interventions for the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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              Association of Epicardial Adipose Tissue and High‐Risk Plaque Characteristics: A Systematic Review and Meta‐Analysis

              Background Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is hypothesized to alter atherosclerotic plaque composition, with potential development of high‐risk plaque (HRP). EAT can be measured by volumetric assessment (EAT‐v) or linear thickness (EAT‐t). We performed a systematic review and random‐effects meta‐analysis to assess the association of EAT with HRP and whether this association is dependent on the measurement method used. Methods and Results Electronic databases were systematically searched up to October 2016. Studies reporting HRP by computed tomography or intracoronary imaging and studies measuring EAT‐v or EAT‐t were included. Odds ratios were extracted from multivariable models reporting the association of EAT with HRP and described as pooled estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Analysis was stratified by EAT measurement method. Nine studies (n=3772 patients) were included with 7 measuring EAT‐v and 2 measuring EAT‐t. Increasing EAT was significantly associated with the presence of HRP (odds ratio: 1.26 [95% CI, 1.11–1.43]; P<0.001). Patients with HRP had higher EAT‐v than those without (weighted mean difference: 28.3 mL [95% CI, 18.8–37.8 mL]; P<0.001). EAT‐v was associated with HRP (odds ratio: 1.19 [95% CI, 1.06–1.33]; P<0.001); however, EAT‐t was not (odds ratio: 3.09 [95% CI, 0.56–17]; P=0.2). Estimates remained significant when adjusted for small‐study effect bias (odds ratio: 1.13 [95% CI, 1.03–1.28]; P=0.04). Conclusions Increasing EAT is associated with the presence of HRP, and patients with HRP have higher quantified EAT‐v. The association of EAT‐v with HRP is significant compared with EAT‐t; however, a larger scale study is still required, and further evaluation is needed to assess whether EAT may be a potential therapeutic target for novel pharmaceutical agents. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/. Unique identifier: CRD42017055473.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Gen Med
                Int J Gen Med
                ijgm
                ijgm
                International Journal of General Medicine
                Dove
                1178-7074
                25 February 2021
                2021
                : 14
                : 633-639
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Cardiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine , Hangzhou, 310009, Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Cardiology, Zhejiang Rongjun Hospital , Jiaxing, 314001, Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jun Jiang Email leiyanci13712@163.com
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                292426
                10.2147/IJGM.S292426
                7920599
                33658835
                d4006411-20d1-4691-bcfc-da560c8875b0
                © 2021 Qian et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                History
                : 03 December 2020
                : 21 January 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 6, References: 25, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Research

                Medicine
                ultrasound,coronary heart disease,epicardial adipose tissue,right common carotid artery elasticity,intima-media thickness

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