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      Biomarkers in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

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          Abstract

          Biomarkers are widely used and studied in heart failure. Most studies have described the utility and performance of biomarkers in sub-studies of randomised clinical trials, where the vast majority of the patients suffered from heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), and not with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). As a result, there is a scarcity of data describing the levels, dynamics, clinical and biochemical correlates, and biology of biomarkers in patients suffering from HFpEF, whereas HFpEF is in fact a very frequent clinical entity. This article discusses the value of different biomarkers in HFpEF. We describe various aspects of natriuretic peptide measurements in HFpEF patients, with a focus on diagnosis, prognosis and the risk prediction of developing heart failure. Further, we will discuss several emerging biomarkers such as galectin-3 and suppression of tumorigenicity 2, and recently discovered ones such as growth differentiation factor-15 and syndecan-1.

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          Most cited references 44

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          Natriuretic peptides.

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            Effect of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibition on exercise capacity and clinical status in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: a randomized clinical trial.

            Studies in experimental and human heart failure suggest that phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors may enhance cardiovascular function and thus exercise capacity in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF). To determine the effect of the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor sildenafil compared with placebo on exercise capacity and clinical status in HFPEF. Multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, randomized clinical trial of 216 stable outpatients with HF, ejection fraction ≥50%, elevated N-terminal brain-type natriuretic peptide or elevated invasively measured filling pressures, and reduced exercise capacity. Participants were randomized from October 2008 through February 2012 at 26 centers in North America. Follow-up was through August 30, 2012. Sildenafil (n = 113) or placebo (n = 103) administered orally at 20 mg, 3 times daily for 12 weeks, followed by 60 mg, 3 times daily for 12 weeks. Primary end point was change in peak oxygen consumption after 24 weeks of therapy. Secondary end points included change in 6-minute walk distance and a hierarchical composite clinical status score (range, 1-n, a higher value indicates better status; expected value with no treatment effect, 95) based on time to death, time to cardiovascular or cardiorenal hospitalization, and change in quality of life for participants without cardiovascular or cardiorenal hospitalization at 24 weeks. Median age was 69 years, and 48% of patients were women. At baseline, median peak oxygen consumption (11.7 mL/kg/min) and 6-minute walk distance (308 m) were reduced. The median E/e' (16), left atrial volume index (44 mL/m2), and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (41 mm Hg) were consistent with chronically elevated left ventricular filling pressures. At 24 weeks, median (IQR) changes in peak oxygen consumption (mL/kg/min) in patients who received placebo (-0.20 [IQR, -0.70 to 1.00]) or sildenafil (-0.20 [IQR, -1.70 to 1.11]) were not significantly different (P = .90) in analyses in which patients with missing week-24 data were excluded, and in sensitivity analysis based on intention to treat with multiple imputation for missing values (mean between-group difference, 0.01 mL/kg/min, [95% CI, -0.60 to 0.61]). The mean clinical status rank score was not significantly different at 24 weeks between placebo (95.8) and sildenafil (94.2) (P = .85). Changes in 6-minute walk distance at 24 weeks in patients who received placebo (15.0 m [IQR, -26.0 to 45.0]) or sildenafil (5.0 m [IQR, -37.0 to 55.0]; P = .92) were also not significantly different. Adverse events occurred in 78 placebo patients (76%) and 90 sildenafil patients (80%). Serious adverse events occurred in 16 placebo patients (16%) and 25 sildenafil patients (22%). Among patients with HFPEF, phosphodiesterase-5 inhibition with administration of sildenafil for 24 weeks, compared with placebo, did not result in significant improvement in exercise capacity or clinical status. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00763867.
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              Effect of spironolactone on diastolic function and exercise capacity in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: the Aldo-DHF randomized controlled trial.

              Diastolic heart failure (ie, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction) is a common condition without established therapy, and aldosterone stimulation may contribute to its progression. To assess the efficacy and safety of long-term aldosterone receptor blockade in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. The primary objective was to determine whether spironolactone is superior to placebo in improving diastolic function and maximal exercise capacity in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. The Aldo-DHF trial, a multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted between March 2007 and April 2012 at 10 sites in Germany and Austria that included 422 ambulatory patients (mean age, 67 [SD, 8] years; 52% female) with chronic New York Heart Association class II or III heart failure, preserved left ventricular ejection fraction of 50% or greater, and evidence of diastolic dysfunction. Patients were randomly assigned to receive 25 mg of spironolactone once daily (n=213) or matching placebo (n=209) with 12 months of follow-up. The equally ranked co-primary end points were changes in diastolic function (E/e') on echocardiography and maximal exercise capacity (peak VO2) on cardiopulmonary exercise testing, both measured at 12 months. Diastolic function (E/e') decreased from 12.7 (SD, 3.6) to 12.1 (SD, 3.7) with spironolactone and increased from 12.8 (SD, 4.4) to 13.6 (SD, 4.3) with placebo (adjusted mean difference, -1.5; 95% CI, -2.0 to -0.9; P < .001). Peak VO2 did not significantly change with spironolactone vs placebo (from 16.3 [SD, 3.6] mL/min/kg to 16.8 [SD, 4.6] mL/min/kg and from 16.4 [SD, 3.5] mL/min/kg to 16.9 [SD, 4.4] mL/min/kg, respectively; adjusted mean difference, +0.1 mL/min/kg; 95% CI, -0.6 to +0.8 mL/min/kg; P = .81). Spironolactone induced reverse remodeling (left ventricular mass index declined; difference, -6 g/m2; 95% CI, -10 to-1 g/m2; P = .009) and improved neuroendocrine activation (N-terminal pro-brain-type natriuretic peptide geometric mean ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.75-0.99; P = .03) but did not improve heart failure symptoms or quality of life and slightly reduced 6-minute walking distance (-15 m; 95% CI, -27 to -2 m; P = .03). Spironolactone also modestly increased serum potassium levels (+0.2 mmol/L; 95% CI, +0.1 to +0.3; P < .001) and decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (-5 mL/min/1.73 m2; 95% CI, -8 to -3 mL/min/1.73 m2; P < .001) without affecting hospitalizations. In this randomized controlled trial, long-term aldosterone receptor blockade improved left ventricular diastolic function but did not affect maximal exercise capacity, patient symptoms, or quality of life in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Whether the improved left ventricular function observed in the Aldo-DHF trial is of clinical significance requires further investigation in larger populations. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: ISRCTN94726526; Eudra-CT No: 2006-002605-31.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                r.a.de.boer@umcg.nl
                Journal
                Neth Heart J
                Neth Heart J
                Netherlands Heart Journal
                Bohn Stafleu van Loghum (Houten )
                1568-5888
                1876-6250
                4 March 2016
                4 March 2016
                April 2016
                : 24
                : 4
                : 252-258
                Affiliations
                Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
                Article
                817
                10.1007/s12471-016-0817-7
                4796059
                26942916
                © The Author(s) 2016

                Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

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                Review Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2016

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