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      Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Evaluation of Their Antibacterial Activity against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria and Wound Healing Efficacy Using a Murine Model


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          Green nanotechnology has significant applications in various biomedical science fields. In this study, green-synthesized silver nanoparticles, prepared by using Catharanthus roseus and Azadirachta indica extracts, were characterized using UV–Vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) synthesized from leaf extracts of C. roseus and A. indica effectively inhibited the growth of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria isolated from patients with septic wound infections. The maximum bacteriolytic activity of the green-synthesized Ag NPs of C. roseus and A. indica against the MDR bacterium K. Pneumoniae was shown by a zone of inhibition of 19 and 16 mm, respectively. C. roseus Ag NPs exhibited more bacteriolytic activity than A. indica Ag NPs in terms of the zone of inhibition. Moreover, these particles were effective in healing wounds in BALB/c mice. Ag NPs of C. roseus and A. indica enhanced wound healing by 94% ± 1% and 87% ± 1%, respectively. Our data suggest that Ag NPs from C. roseus and A. indicia ameliorate excision wounds, and wound healing could be due to their effective antimicrobial activity against MDR bacteria. Hence, these Ag NPs could be potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of wounds.

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          Staphylococcus aureus infections: epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and management.

          Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen that causes a wide range of clinical infections. It is a leading cause of bacteremia and infective endocarditis as well as osteoarticular, skin and soft tissue, pleuropulmonary, and device-related infections. This review comprehensively covers the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and management of each of these clinical entities. The past 2 decades have witnessed two clear shifts in the epidemiology of S. aureus infections: first, a growing number of health care-associated infections, particularly seen in infective endocarditis and prosthetic device infections, and second, an epidemic of community-associated skin and soft tissue infections driven by strains with certain virulence factors and resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. In reviewing the literature to support management strategies for these clinical manifestations, we also highlight the paucity of high-quality evidence for many key clinical questions.
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            Silver nanoparticles as antimicrobial agent: a case study on E. coli as a model for Gram-negative bacteria.

            The antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles against E. coli was investigated as a model for Gram-negative bacteria. Bacteriological tests were performed in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium on solid agar plates and in liquid systems supplemented with different concentrations of nanosized silver particles. These particles were shown to be an effective bactericide. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) were used to study the biocidal action of this nanoscale material. The results confirmed that the treated E. coli cells were damaged, showing formation of "pits" in the cell wall of the bacteria, while the silver nanoparticles were found to accumulate in the bacterial membrane. A membrane with such a morphology exhibits a significant increase in permeability, resulting in death of the cell. These nontoxic nanomaterials, which can be prepared in a simple and cost-effective manner, may be suitable for the formulation of new types of bactericidal materials.
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              Silver nanoparticles as a new generation of antimicrobials.

              Silver has been in use since time immemorial in the form of metallic silver, silver nitrate, silver sulfadiazine for the treatment of burns, wounds and several bacterial infections. But due to the emergence of several antibiotics the use of these silver compounds has been declined remarkably. Nanotechnology is gaining tremendous impetus in the present century due to its capability of modulating metals into their nanosize, which drastically changes the chemical, physical and optical properties of metals. Metallic silver in the form of silver nanoparticles has made a remarkable comeback as a potential antimicrobial agent. The use of silver nanoparticles is also important, as several pathogenic bacteria have developed resistance against various antibiotics. Hence, silver nanoparticles have emerged up with diverse medical applications ranging from silver based dressings, silver coated medicinal devices, such as nanogels, nanolotions, etc.

                Author and article information

                Antibiotics (Basel)
                Antibiotics (Basel)
                13 December 2020
                December 2020
                : 9
                : 12
                [1 ]Department of Genetics and Genomics, Yogi Vemana University, Kadapa, AP 516005, India; vajravathi@ 123456gmail.com
                [2 ]Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Yogi Vemana University, Kadapa, AP 516005, India; cmreddy@ 123456yogivemanauniversity.ac.in (M.C.R.); p.rojarani.virology@ 123456gmail.com (R.R.P.)
                [3 ]School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia; raghava.kakarla@ 123456sydney.edu.au
                [4 ]School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749, Korea
                [5 ]Advanced Functional Materials Laboratory, Department of Applied Chemistry, Zakir Husain College of Engineering and Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, UP 202002, India; inamuddin@ 123456zhcet.ac.in
                [6 ]Deanship of Scientific Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 80216, Saudi Arabia; alegman@ 123456kau.edu.sa
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: cvreddy@ 123456ynu.ac.kr (C.V.R.); dlomada@ 123456yogivemanauniversity.ac.in (D.L.); Tel.: +91-9652001184 (D.L.)
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 02 November 2020
                : 10 December 2020

                silver nanoparticles,green synthesis method,catharanthus roseus,azadirachta indica,multidrug-resistant bacteria,wound healing


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