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      The transpulmonary ratio of endothelin 1 is elevated in patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction and combined pre- and post-capillary pulmonary hypertension


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          Pulmonary hypertension complicating left heart disease (PH-LHD) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, especially in patients who develop combined pre- and post-capillary PH (Cpc-PH). Mechanisms underlying PH-LHD are incompletely understood, particularly for individuals with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). We hypothesized that transpulmonary concentrations of biomarkers representing signaling pathways with known effects on the pulmonary circulation could provide insight into the molecular etiology of PH-LHD in patients with preserved LVEF. Blood samples were collected from the pulmonary artery (PA) and wedge positions of outpatients with normal LVEF referred for right heart catheterization. Hemodynamic tracings were reviewed to classify patients as “no PH” (n = 23) or “PH-LHD” (n = 22). A biomarker’s transpulmonary ratio (TPR) was calculated as the quotient of wedge and PA concentrations. The TPR of endothelin 1 (ET-1) was elevated in Cpc-PH (n = 10) compared to no PH or isolated post-capillary PH (Ipc-PH, n = 12); cAMP and cGMP TPRs were not different among groups. Higher ET-1 TPR in Cpc-PH was due to increased wedge ET-1 concentration. Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) strongly correlated with wedge ET-1 exclusively in Cpc-PH patients. In patients with normal LVEF and Cpc-PH, ET-1 TPR is higher, due to elevated wedge ET-1, compared to those without PH or with Ipc-PH. Strong correlation between PVR and wedge ET-1, observed only in the Cpc-PH group, may suggest increased pulmonary vascular responsiveness to ET-1 in these patients. These findings implicate elevated pulmonary ET-1 as a marker of, and a potential contributor to, development of Cpc-PH in this population.

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          Effect of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibition on exercise capacity and clinical status in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: a randomized clinical trial.

          Studies in experimental and human heart failure suggest that phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors may enhance cardiovascular function and thus exercise capacity in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF). To determine the effect of the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor sildenafil compared with placebo on exercise capacity and clinical status in HFPEF. Multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, randomized clinical trial of 216 stable outpatients with HF, ejection fraction ≥50%, elevated N-terminal brain-type natriuretic peptide or elevated invasively measured filling pressures, and reduced exercise capacity. Participants were randomized from October 2008 through February 2012 at 26 centers in North America. Follow-up was through August 30, 2012. Sildenafil (n = 113) or placebo (n = 103) administered orally at 20 mg, 3 times daily for 12 weeks, followed by 60 mg, 3 times daily for 12 weeks. Primary end point was change in peak oxygen consumption after 24 weeks of therapy. Secondary end points included change in 6-minute walk distance and a hierarchical composite clinical status score (range, 1-n, a higher value indicates better status; expected value with no treatment effect, 95) based on time to death, time to cardiovascular or cardiorenal hospitalization, and change in quality of life for participants without cardiovascular or cardiorenal hospitalization at 24 weeks. Median age was 69 years, and 48% of patients were women. At baseline, median peak oxygen consumption (11.7 mL/kg/min) and 6-minute walk distance (308 m) were reduced. The median E/e' (16), left atrial volume index (44 mL/m2), and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (41 mm Hg) were consistent with chronically elevated left ventricular filling pressures. At 24 weeks, median (IQR) changes in peak oxygen consumption (mL/kg/min) in patients who received placebo (-0.20 [IQR, -0.70 to 1.00]) or sildenafil (-0.20 [IQR, -1.70 to 1.11]) were not significantly different (P = .90) in analyses in which patients with missing week-24 data were excluded, and in sensitivity analysis based on intention to treat with multiple imputation for missing values (mean between-group difference, 0.01 mL/kg/min, [95% CI, -0.60 to 0.61]). The mean clinical status rank score was not significantly different at 24 weeks between placebo (95.8) and sildenafil (94.2) (P = .85). Changes in 6-minute walk distance at 24 weeks in patients who received placebo (15.0 m [IQR, -26.0 to 45.0]) or sildenafil (5.0 m [IQR, -37.0 to 55.0]; P = .92) were also not significantly different. Adverse events occurred in 78 placebo patients (76%) and 90 sildenafil patients (80%). Serious adverse events occurred in 16 placebo patients (16%) and 25 sildenafil patients (22%). Among patients with HFPEF, phosphodiesterase-5 inhibition with administration of sildenafil for 24 weeks, compared with placebo, did not result in significant improvement in exercise capacity or clinical status. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00763867.
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            Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases.

            Pulmonary hypertension (PH), a common complication of left heart diseases (LHD), negatively impacts symptoms, exercise capacity, and outcome. Although the true prevalence of PH-LHD is unknown, a subset of patients might present significant PH that cannot be explained by a passive increase in left-sided filling pressures. The term "out-of-proportion" PH has been used to identify that population without a clear definition, which has been found less than ideal and created confusion. We propose a change in terminology and a new definition of PH due to LHD. We suggest to abandon "out-of-proportion" PH and to distinguish "isolated post-capillary PH" from "post-capillary PH with a pre-capillary component" on the basis of the pressure difference between diastolic pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary artery wedge pressure. Although there is no validated treatment for PH-LHD, we provide insights into management and discuss completed and randomized trials in this condition. Finally, we provide recommendations for future clinical trials to establish safety and efficacy of novel compounds to target this area of unmet medical need. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Independent and additive prognostic value of right ventricular systolic function and pulmonary artery pressure in patients with chronic heart failure.

              We sought a better understanding of the coupling between right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) and pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), as it might improve the accuracy of the prognostic stratification of patients with heart failure. Despite the long-standing view that systolic function of the right ventricle (RV) is almost exclusively dependent on the afterload that this cardiac chamber must confront, recent studies claim that RV function is an independent prognostic factor in patients with chronic heart failure. Right heart catheterization was performed in 377 consecutive patients with heart failure. During a median follow-up period of 17 +/- 9 months, 105 patients died and 35 underwent urgent heart transplantation. Pulmonary artery pressure and thermodilution-derived RVEF were inversely related (r = 0.66, p < 0.001). However, on Cox multivariate survival analysis, no interaction between such variables was found, and both turned out to be independent prognostic predictors (p < 0.001). It was found that RVEF was preserved in some patients with pulmonary hypertension, and that the prognosis of these patients was similar to that of the patients with normal PAP. In contrast, when PAP was normal, reduced RV function did not carry an additional risk. These observations emphasize the necessity of combining the right heart hemodynamic variables with a functional evaluation of the RV when trying to define the individual risk of patients with heart failure.

                Author and article information

                Pulm Circ
                Pulm Circ
                Pulmonary Circulation
                SAGE Publications (Sage UK: London, England )
                18 December 2017
                January 2018
                : 8
                : 1
                : 2045893217745019
                [1 ] Ringgold 12328, universityDivision of Cardiovascular Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA;
                [2 ] Ringgold 12328, universityDivision of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA;
                Author notes
                [*]Ken Monahan, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1215 21st Avenue South – Medical Center East, 5th floor, Nashville, TN 37232, USA. Email: ken.monahan@ 123456vanderbilt.edu
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Creative Commons Non Commercial CC BY-NC: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License ( http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages ( https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage).

                : 17 August 2017
                : 1 November 2017
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                January-March 2018

                Respiratory medicine
                biomarker,cardiopulmonary physiology and pathophysiology,endothelin,heart failure,hemodynamics


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