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      Dietary fiber and prebiotics and the gastrointestinal microbiota

      review-article
      Gut Microbes
      Taylor & Francis
      fermentation, human microbiome, non-digestible carbohydrate, short-chain fatty acids

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          ABSTRACT

          The gastrointestinal microbiota has an important role in human health, and there is increasing interest in utilizing dietary approaches to modulate the composition and metabolic function of the microbial communities that colonize the gastrointestinal tract to improve health, and prevent or treat disease. One dietary strategy for modulating the microbiota is consumption of dietary fiber and prebiotics that can be metabolized by microbes in the gastrointestinal tract. Human alimentary enzymes are not able to digest most complex carbohydrates and plant polysaccharides. Instead, these polysaccharides are metabolized by microbes which generate short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including acetate, propionate, and butyrate. This article reviews the current knowledge of the impact of fiber and prebiotic consumption on the composition and metabolic function of the human gastrointestinal microbiota, including the effects of physiochemical properties of complex carbohydrates, adequate intake and treatment dosages, and the phenotypic responses related to the composition of the human microbiota.

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          Most cited references94

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          Diet rapidly and reproducibly alters the human gut microbiome

          Long-term diet influences the structure and activity of the trillions of microorganisms residing in the human gut 1–5 , but it remains unclear how rapidly and reproducibly the human gut microbiome responds to short-term macronutrient change. Here, we show that the short-term consumption of diets composed entirely of animal or plant products alters microbial community structure and overwhelms inter-individual differences in microbial gene expression. The animal-based diet increased the abundance of bile-tolerant microorganisms (Alistipes, Bilophila, and Bacteroides) and decreased the levels of Firmicutes that metabolize dietary plant polysaccharides (Roseburia, Eubacterium rectale, and Ruminococcus bromii). Microbial activity mirrored differences between herbivorous and carnivorous mammals 2 , reflecting trade-offs between carbohydrate and protein fermentation. Foodborne microbes from both diets transiently colonized the gut, including bacteria, fungi, and even viruses. Finally, increases in the abundance and activity of Bilophila wadsworthia on the animal-based diet support a link between dietary fat, bile acids, and the outgrowth of microorganisms capable of triggering inflammatory bowel disease 6 . In concert, these results demonstrate that the gut microbiome can rapidly respond to altered diet, potentially facilitating the diversity of human dietary lifestyles.
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            From Dietary Fiber to Host Physiology: Short-Chain Fatty Acids as Key Bacterial Metabolites.

            A compelling set of links between the composition of the gut microbiota, the host diet, and host physiology has emerged. Do these links reflect cause-and-effect relationships, and what might be their mechanistic basis? A growing body of work implicates microbially produced metabolites as crucial executors of diet-based microbial influence on the host. Here, we will review data supporting the diverse functional roles carried out by a major class of bacterial metabolites, the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). SCFAs can directly activate G-coupled-receptors, inhibit histone deacetylases, and serve as energy substrates. They thus affect various physiological processes and may contribute to health and disease.
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              A metagenome-wide association study of gut microbiota in type 2 diabetes.

              Assessment and characterization of gut microbiota has become a major research area in human disease, including type 2 diabetes, the most prevalent endocrine disease worldwide. To carry out analysis on gut microbial content in patients with type 2 diabetes, we developed a protocol for a metagenome-wide association study (MGWAS) and undertook a two-stage MGWAS based on deep shotgun sequencing of the gut microbial DNA from 345 Chinese individuals. We identified and validated approximately 60,000 type-2-diabetes-associated markers and established the concept of a metagenomic linkage group, enabling taxonomic species-level analyses. MGWAS analysis showed that patients with type 2 diabetes were characterized by a moderate degree of gut microbial dysbiosis, a decrease in the abundance of some universal butyrate-producing bacteria and an increase in various opportunistic pathogens, as well as an enrichment of other microbial functions conferring sulphate reduction and oxidative stress resistance. An analysis of 23 additional individuals demonstrated that these gut microbial markers might be useful for classifying type 2 diabetes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Gut Microbes
                Gut Microbes
                KGMI
                kgmi20
                Gut Microbes
                Taylor & Francis
                1949-0976
                1949-0984
                2017
                6 February 2017
                6 February 2017
                : 8
                : 2 , Impact of Diet on Gut Microbiota Composition and Function Guest Editor: Sharon Donovan
                : 172-184
                Affiliations
                Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition and Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois , 361 Edward R. Madigan Laboratory, Urbana, IL USA
                Author notes
                CONTACT Hannah D Holscher hholsche@ 123456illinois.edu Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition and Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois , 361 Edward R. Madigan Laboratory, 1201 West Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 USA
                [†]

                Assistant Professor of Nutrition and Human Microbiome

                Article
                1290756
                10.1080/19490976.2017.1290756
                5390821
                28165863
                d6bcd22a-8896-451f-b6c7-83f2a2c8bc09
                © 2017 The Author(s). Published with license by Taylor & Francis

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The moral rights of the named author(s) have been asserted.

                History
                : 19 July 2016
                : 21 January 2017
                : 30 January 2017
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 94, Pages: 13
                Categories
                Review

                Microbiology & Virology
                fermentation,human microbiome,non-digestible carbohydrate,short-chain fatty acids

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