Avian liver bile acid-binding protein (L-BABP) binds peripherically to anionic lipid membranes. We previously showed that in the absence of added salt the binding to 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (DMPG) occurs with changes in the secondary structure, the extent of which depends on the phase state of the lipid. In the present work, we used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to study the conformations of L-BABP bound to lipids with phosphoglycerol and phosphatidic acid polar head groups and with different transition temperatures in an aqueous medium with high ionic strength (0.1 M NaCl). When L-BABP was bound to the lipids with saturated acyl chains, DMPG, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (DPPG), 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (DMPA), and 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (DLPA), the conformation shifted from a native-like secondary structure to an unfolded state at the temperature of lipid chain melting. The protein was in the native-like conformation when it was bound to the unsaturated 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (POPG) in the liquid-crystalline phase. We also measured the electrokinetic surface potential of POPG and DMPG vesicles in the gel and in the liquid-crystalline phase and the protein binding constant to these lipid membranes. We found a correlation indicating that protein unfolding in the interface was due to the increase in the electrostatic surface potential that occurs in the lipid phase transition.