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      The gut–renal axis: do incretin-based agents confer renoprotection in diabetes?

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          Abstract

          Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide, and is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Intensive control of glucose levels and blood pressure is currently the mainstay of both prevention and treatment of diabetic nephropathy. However, this strategy cannot fully prevent the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy, and an unmet need remains for additional novel therapies. The incretin-based agents--agonists of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) and inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4), an enzyme that degrades glucagon-like peptide 1--are novel blood-glucose-lowering drugs used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Therapeutic agents from these two drug classes improve pancreatic islet function and induce extrapancreatic effects that ameliorate various phenotypic defects of T2DM that are beyond glucose control. Agonists of GLP-1R and inhibitors of DPP-4 reduce blood pressure, dyslipidaemia and inflammation, although only GLP-1R agonists decrease body weight. Both types of incretin-based agents inhibit renal tubular sodium reabsorption and decrease glomerular pressure as well as albuminuria in rodents and humans. In rodents, incretin-based therapies also prevent onset of the morphological abnormalities of diabetic nephropathy.

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          Most cited references 124

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          Multifactorial intervention and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes.

          Cardiovascular morbidity is a major burden in patients with type 2 diabetes. In the Steno-2 Study, we compared the effect of a targeted, intensified, multifactorial intervention with that of conventional treatment on modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria. The primary end point of this open, parallel trial was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, revascularization, and amputation. Eighty patients were randomly assigned to receive conventional treatment in accordance with national guidelines and 80 to receive intensive treatment, with a stepwise implementation of behavior modification and pharmacologic therapy that targeted hyperglycemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and microalbuminuria, along with secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease with aspirin. The mean age of the patients was 55.1 years, and the mean follow-up was 7.8 years. The decline in glycosylated hemoglobin values, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels measured after an overnight fast, and urinary albumin excretion rate were all significantly greater in the intensive-therapy group than in the conventional-therapy group. Patients receiving intensive therapy also had a significantly lower risk of cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio, 0.47; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.24 to 0.73), nephropathy (hazard ratio, 0.39; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.17 to 0.87), retinopathy (hazard ratio, 0.42; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.21 to 0.86), and autonomic neuropathy (hazard ratio, 0.37; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.18 to 0.79). A target-driven, long-term, intensified intervention aimed at multiple risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria reduces the risk of cardiovascular and microvascular events by about 50 percent. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            The effect of irbesartan on the development of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes.

             Ryan Andersen,  P Arner,   (2001)
            Microalbuminuria and hypertension are risk factors for diabetic nephropathy. Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system slows the progression to diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes, but similar data are lacking for hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the renoprotective effect of the angiotensin-II-receptor antagonist irbesartan in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria. A total of 590 hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria were enrolled in this multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of irbesartan, at a dose of either 150 mg daily or 300 mg daily, and were followed for two years. The primary outcome was the time to the onset of diabetic nephropathy, defined by persistent albuminuria in overnight specimens, with a urinary albumin excretion rate that was greater than 200 microg per minute and at least 30 percent higher than the base-line level. The base-line characteristics in the three groups were similar. Ten of the 194 patients in the 300-mg group (5.2 percent) and 19 of the 195 patients in the 150-mg group (9.7 percent) reached the primary end point, as compared with 30 of the 201 patients in the placebo group (14.9 percent) (hazard ratios, 0.30 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.14 to 0.61; P< 0.001] and 0.61 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.34 to 1.08; P=0.081 for the two irbesartan groups, respectively). The average blood pressure during the course of the study was 144/83 mm Hg in the placebo group, 143/83 mm Hg in the 150-mg group, and 141/83 mm Hg in the 300-mg group (P=0.004 for the comparison of systolic blood pressure between the placebo group and the combined irbesartan groups). Serious adverse events were less frequent among the patients treated with irbesartan (P=0.02). Irbesartan is renoprotective independently of its blood-pressure-lowering effect in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria.
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              Inflammatory molecules and pathways in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy.

              Many lines of evidence, ranging from in vitro experiments and pathological examinations to epidemiological studies, show that inflammation is a cardinal pathogenetic mechanism in diabetic nephropathy. Thus, modulation of inflammatory processes in the setting of diabetes mellitus is a matter of great interest for researchers today. The relationships between inflammation and the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy involve complex molecular networks and processes. This Review, therefore, focuses on key proinflammatory molecules and pathways implicated in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy: the chemokines CCL2, CX3CL1 and CCL5 (also known as MCP-1, fractalkine and RANTES, respectively); the adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule 1, vascular cell adhesion protein 1, endothelial cell-selective adhesion molecule, E-selectin and α-actinin 4; the transcription factor nuclear factor κB; and the inflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-6, IL-18 and tumor necrosis factor. Advances in the understanding of the roles that these inflammatory pathways have in the context of diabetic nephropathy will facilitate the discovery of new therapeutic targets. In the next few years, promising new therapeutic strategies based on anti-inflammatory effects could be successfully translated into clinical treatments for diabetic complications, including diabetic nephropathy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Nephrology
                Nat Rev Nephrol
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1759-5061
                1759-507X
                February 2014
                December 24 2013
                February 2014
                : 10
                : 2
                : 88-103
                Article
                10.1038/nrneph.2013.272
                24375052
                © 2014

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