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      ZnO-nanorods/graphene heterostructure: a direct electron transfer glucose biosensor

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          ZnO-nanorods/graphene heterostructure was synthesized by hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanorods on chemically reduced graphene (CRG) film. The hybrid structure was demonstrated as a biosensor, where direct electron transfer between glucose oxidase (GOD) and electrode was observed. The charge transfer was attributed to the ZnO nanorod wiring between the redox center of GOD and electrode, and the ZnO/graphene heterostructure facilitated the transport of electrons on the hybride electrode. The glucose sensor based on the GOD-ZnO/CRG/Pt electrode had a high sensitivity of 17.64 μA mM −1, which is higher than most of the previously reported values for direct electron transfer based glucose biosensors. Moreover, this biosensor is linearly proportional to the concentration of glucose in the range of 0.2–1.6 mM. The study revealed that the band structure of electrode could affect the detection of direct electron transfer of GOD, which would be helpful for the design of the biosensor electrodes in the future.

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          Most cited references 13

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          A colorimetric sensor array for odour visualization.

          Array-based vapour-sensing devices are used to detect and differentiate between chemically diverse analytes. These systems--based on cross-responsive sensor elements--aim to mimic the mammalian olfactory system by producing composite responses unique to each odorant. Previous work has concentrated on a variety of non-specific chemical interactions to detect non-coordinating organic vapours. But the most odiferous, toxic compounds often bind readily to metal ions. Here we report a simple optical chemical sensing method that utilizes the colour change induced in an array of metalloporphyrin dyes upon ligand binding while minimizing the need for extensive signal transduction hardware. The chemoselective response of a library of immobilized vapour-sensing metalloporphyrin dyes permits the visual identification of a wide range of ligating (alcohols, amines, ethers, phosphines, phosphites, thioethers and thiols) and even weakly ligating (arenes, halocarbons and ketones) vapours. Water vapour does not affect the performance of the device, which shows a good linear response to single analytes, and interpretable responses to analyte mixtures. Unique colour fingerprints can be obtained at analyte concentrations below 2 parts per million, and responses to below 100 parts per billion have been observed. We expect that this type of sensing array will be of practical importance for general-purpose vapour dosimeters and analyte-specific detectors (for insecticides, drugs or neurotoxins, for example).
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            "Plugging into Enzymes": nanowiring of redox enzymes by a gold nanoparticle.

            The reconstitution of an apo-flavoenzyme, apo-glucose oxidase, on a 1.4-nanometer gold nanocrystal functionalized with the cofactor flavin adenine dinucleotide and integrated into a conductive film yields a bioelectrocatalytic system with exceptional electrical contact with the electrode support. The electron transfer turnover rate of the reconstituted bioelectrocatalyst is approximately 5000 per second, compared with the rate at which molecular oxygen, the natural cosubstrate of the enzyme, accepts electrons (approximately 700 per second). The gold nanoparticle acts as an electron relay or "electrical nanoplug" for the alignment of the enzyme on the conductive support and for the electrical wiring of its redox-active center.
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              Highly sensitive glucose sensor based on pt nanoparticle/polyaniline hydrogel heterostructures.

               Yaqun Wang,  Xu G. Yu,  D Zhai (2013)
              Glucose enzyme biosensors have been shown useful for a range of applications from medical diagnosis, bioprocess monitoring, to beverage industry and environmental monitoring. We present here a highly sensitive glucose enzyme sensor based on Pt nanoparticles (PtNPs)-polyaniline (PAni) hydrogel heterostructures. High-density PtNPs were homogeneously loaded onto the three-dimensional (3D) nanostructured matrix of the PAni hydrogel. The PtNP/PAni hydrogel heterostructure-based glucose sensor synergizes the advantages of both the conducting hydrogel and the nanoparticle catalyst. The porous structure of the PAni hydrogel favored the high density immobilization of the enzyme and the penetration of water-soluble molecules, which helped efficiently catalyze the oxidation of glucose. In addition, the PtNPs catalyzed the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide that was generated during the enzymatic reaction. The transferred charges from these electrochemical processes were efficiently collected by the highly conducting PtNP/PAni hydrogel heterostructures. The glucose enzyme sensor based on this heterostructure exhibited unprecedented sensitivity, as high as 96.1 μA·mM(-1)·cm(-2), with a response time as fast as 3 s, a linear range of 0.01 to 8 mM, and a low detection limit of 0.7 μM.

                Author and article information

                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                30 August 2016
                : 6
                [1 ]School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University , Nanjing 210093, China
                [2 ]School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University , Nanjing 210093, China
                [3 ]Department of Electronic Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong , Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR, China
                Author notes

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Copyright © 2016, The Author(s)

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