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      Pericellular Matrix Formation by Renal Tubule Epithelial Cells in Relation to Crystal Binding

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          Background/Aim: Retention of crystals in the kidney ultimately leads to renal stone formation. Hyaluronan (HA) has been identified as binding molecule for calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals. The association of high molecular mass (M<sub>r</sub>) HA with cell surface receptors such as CD44 gives rise to pericellular matrix (PCM) formation by many eukaryotic cells in culture. Here, we study the ability of several renal tubular cell lines to assemble PCMs and to synthesize high-M<sub>r</sub> HA during proliferation in relation to crystal retention. Methods: PCM assembly by MDCK-I, MDCK-II, and LLC-PK<sub>1</sub> cells was visualized by particle exclusion assay. Metabolic labeling studies were performed to estimate the cellular production of HA. The expression of CD44 and HA was studied using fluorescent probes, and crystal binding was quantified with radiolabeled calcium oxalate monohydrate. Results: PCMs were formed, and HA was expressed by most MDCK-I and some MDCK-II, but not by LLC-PK<sub>1</sub> cells. All cell types expressed CD44 at their apical surface. MDCK-I and MDCK-II cells secreted, respectively, 14.7 ± 1.6 and 0.5 ± 0.2 pmol [<sup>3</sup>H]glucosamine incorporated in high-M<sub>r</sub> HA, whereas LLC-PK<sub>1</sub> cells did not secrete HA. Streptomyces hyaluronidase treatment significantly decreased crystal binding (µg/cm<sup>2</sup>) to MDCK-I cells (from 8.6 ± 0.4 to 3.9 ± 0.9), but hardly to MDCK-II cells (from 10.2 ± 0.2 to 9.6 ± 0.1) or LLC-PK<sub>1</sub> cells (from 10.2 ± 0.8 to 9.9 ± 0.3). Conclusions: There are various forms of crystal binding to renal tubular cells in culture. Crystal attachment to MDCK-I and some MDCK-II cells involves PCM assembly that requires high-M<sub>r</sub> HA synthesis. HA production and PCM formation do not play a role in crystal binding to LLC-PK<sub>1</sub> and the majority of MDCK-II cells. It remains to be determined which form of binding is involved in renal stone disease.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Hyaluronan Synthases

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            Identification of hyaluronic acid binding sites in the extracellular domain of CD44

            CD44 is a polymorphic glycoprotein expressed on the surface of many tissues and cell lines which has been implicated in a number of cellular functions including lymphocyte homing to mucosal lymphoid tissue (Peyers patches), leukocyte activation, lymphopoiesis, and tumor metastasis. The predominant isoform found on human leukocytes, CD44H, is a receptor for hyaluronic acid. Because of the prominent role CD44 plays in diverse biological processes, we set out to identify the hyaluronic acid binding site(s) in the extracellular domain of CD44H. Using truncation and site-directed mutagenesis we identified two regions containing clusters of conserved basic residues which are important in hyaluronic acid binding. One of these regions is situated near the NH2 terminus and is homologous to other hyaluronic acid binding proteins including cartilage link protein. The other more membrane proximal region lies outside the link protein homologous domain. Mutagenesis of basic residues within these regions established their role as determinants in hyaluronic acid binding. Mutation of Arg 41, a position where a basic residue is conserved in all hyaluronic acid binding proteins, completely abolished binding suggesting that this residue plays a critical role in hyaluronic acid binding.
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              Epidermal growth factor activates hyaluronan synthase 2 in epidermal keratinocytes and increases pericellular and intracellular hyaluronan.

              Hyaluronan is an abundant and rapidly turned over matrix molecule between the vital cell layers of the epidermis. In this study, epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced a coat of hyaluronan and a 3-5-fold increase in its rate of synthesis in a rat epidermal keratinocyte cell line that has retained its ability for differentiation. EGF also increased hyaluronan in perinuclear vesicles, suggesting concurrent enhancement in its endocytosis. Cell-associated hyaluronan was most abundant in elongated cells that were stimulated to migrate by EGF, as determined in vitro in a wound healing assay. Large fluctuations in the pool size of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, the metabolic precursor of hyaluronan, correlated with medium glucose concentrations but not with EGF. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed no increase in hyaluronan synthases 1 and 3 (Has1 and Has3), whereas Has2 mRNA increased 2-3-fold in less than 2 h following the introduction of EGF, as estimated by quantitative RT-PCR with a truncated Has2 mRNA internal standard. The average level of Has2 mRNA increased from approximately 6 copies/cell in cultures before change of fresh medium, up to approximately 54 copies/cell after 6 h in EGF-containing medium. A control medium with 10% serum caused a maximum level of approximately 21 copies/cell at 6 h. The change in the Has2 mRNA levels and the stimulation of hyaluronan synthesis followed a similar temporal pattern, reaching a maximum level at 6 h and declining toward 24 h, a finding in line with a predominantly Has2-dependent hyaluronan synthesis and its transcriptional regulation.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                July 2003
                17 November 2004
                : 94
                : 3
                : e103-e112
                Department of Urology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
                72028 Nephron Exp Nephrol 2003;94:e103–e112
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 4, Tables: 4, References: 43, Pages: 1
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