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      Two novel and one known pathogenic germline mutations in MMRs in Chinese families with Lynch syndrome


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          Risk of Prostate Cancer Associated With Familial and Hereditary Cancer Syndromes

          Recently developed clinical guidelines suggest that men in families with specific cancer syndromes, such as hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC), consider genetic testing, especially in the setting of aggressive disease. However, although a family history (FH) of the same disease among close relatives is an established risk factor for prostate cancer (PC), a direct comparison of PC risk for men with each syndrome in a single population is needed. The Utah Population Database was used to identify 619,630 men, age ≥ 40 years, who were members of a pedigree that included at least 3 consecutive generations. Each man was evaluated for FH of hereditary PC (HPC), HBOC, and Lynch syndrome (LS) and for his own PC status. PC occurrences (N = 36,360) were classified into one or more subtypes: early onset (EO), lethal, and/or clinically significant. Relative risks (RRs) associated with each subtype, adjusted for important covariables, were calculated in STATA using a modified Poisson regression with robust error variances to obtain corresponding RR CIs for each FH definition. An FH of HPC conveyed the greatest relative risk for all PC subtypes combined (RR, 2.30; 95% CI, 2.22 to 2.40), followed by HBOC and LS (both with 1 < RR < 2 and statistically significant). The strongest risks associated with FH were observed for EO disease in all pedigree types, consistent with the contribution of genetic factors to disease occurrence. In this large, population-based, family database, the risk of PC varied by cancer FH and was most strongly associated with EO disease. These results are critically valuable in understanding and targeting high-risk populations that would benefit from genetic screening and enhanced surveillance.
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            BRCA2 loss-of-function germline mutations are associated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma risk in Chinese.

            Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) occurs with highest frequency in China with over 90% mortality, highlighting the need for early detection and improved treatment strategies. We aimed to identify ESCC cancer predisposition gene(s). Our study included 4,517 individuals. The discovery phase using whole-exome sequencing (WES) included 186 familial ESCC patients from high-risk China. Targeted gene sequencing validation of 598 genes included 3,289 Henan and 1,228 moderate-risk Hong Kong Chinese. A WES approach identified BRCA2 loss-of-function (LOF) mutations in 3.23% (6/186) familial ESCC patients compared to 0.21% (9/4300) in the ExAC East Asians (odds ratio [OR] = 15.89, p = 2.48 × 10-10 ). BRCA2 LOF mutation frequency in the combined Henan cohort has significantly higher prevalence (OR = 10.55, p = 0.0035). Results were independently validated in an ESCC Hong Kong cohort (OR = 10.64, p = 0.022). One Hong Kong pedigree was identified to carry a BRCA2 LOF mutation. BRCA2 inactivation in ESCC was via germline LOF mutations and wild-type somatic allelic loss via loss of heterozygosity. Gene-based association analysis, including LOF mutations and rare deleterious missense variants defined with combined annotation dependent depletion score ≥30, confirmed the genetic predisposition role of BRCA2 (OR = 9.50, p = 3.44 × 10-5 ), and provided new evidence for potential association of ESCC risk with DNA repair genes (POLQ and MSH2), inflammation (TTC39B) and angiogenesis (KDR). Our findings are the first to provide compelling evidence of the role of BRCA2 in ESCC genetic susceptibility in Chinese, suggesting defective homologous recombination is an underlying cause in ESCC pathogenesis, which is amenable to therapeutic options based on synthetic lethality approaches such as targeting BRCA2 with PARP1 inhibitors in ESCC.
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              Nine novel pathogenic germline mutations in MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 in families with Lynch syndrome.

              Many germline mutations in the DNA mismatch repair genes have been described so far leading to the clinical phenotype of Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, HNPCC). Most mutations are private mutations. We report on nine novel pathogenic germline mutations that have been found in families meeting either the Amsterdam or the Bethesda criteria. These findings include the mutations MLH1,c.884+4A>G, MLH1,c.1377_1378insA;p.Glu460ArgfsX19, MLH1,c.1415_1416delGA;p.Arg472ThrfsX5, MSH2,c.301G>T;p.Glu101X, MSH2,c.638_639delTG;p.Leu213GlnfsX18, MSH2,c.842C>A;p.Ser281X, MSH2,c.859G>T;p.Gly287X, MSH6,c.2503C>T;p.Gln835X and a large genomic deletion of exons 1-10 of the PMS2 gene. The mutation MLH1,c.884+4A>G detected in two families results in a complete skipping of exon 10 on mRNA level and thus has been considered as pathogenic. In all cases the tumor tissue of the index patient revealed high microsatellite instability (MSI-H) and showed a complete loss of expression of the affected protein in the tumor cells by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The findings underline the importance of a pre-screening of tumor tissue for an efficient definition of conspicuous cases.

                Author and article information

                Genes Dis
                Genes Dis
                Genes & Diseases
                Chongqing Medical University
                16 November 2021
                March 2022
                16 November 2021
                : 9
                : 2
                : 292-295
                [a ]Department of Pharmacy, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430021, PR China
                [b ]Department of Pediatrics, Tongji Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074, PR China
                [c ]Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430021, PR China
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. dapyxb@ 123456163.com
                [∗∗ ]Corresponding author. hky880611@ 123456163.com
                [∗∗∗ ]Corresponding author. Fax: +27 82201722. huanghuizx027@ 123456163.com

                Juyi Li and Lin Zhu contributed equally.

                © 2021 Chongqing Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                : 15 September 2021
                : 7 October 2021
                : 24 October 2021
                Rapid Communication


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