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      The Relationship between Antimicrobial Resistance and Patient Outcomes: Mortality, Length of Hospital Stay, and Health Care Costs

      Clinical Infectious Diseases
      University of Chicago Press

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          Abstract

          There is an association between the development of antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus aureus, enterococci, and gram-negative bacilli and increases in mortality, morbidity, length of hospitalization, and cost of health care. For many patients, inadequate or delayed therapy and severe underlying disease are primarily responsible for the adverse outcomes of infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant organisms. Patients with infections due to antimicrobial-resistant organisms have higher costs (approximately 6,000-30,000 dollars) than do patients with infections due to antimicrobial-susceptible organisms; the difference in cost is even greater when patients infected with antimicrobial-resistant organisms are compared with patients without infection. Strategies to prevent nosocomial emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant organisms are essential.

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          Most cited references39

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          Comparison of mortality associated with methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a meta-analysis.

          A meta-analysis was performed to summarize the impact of methicillin-resistance on mortality in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. A search of the MEDLINE database for studies published during the period of 1 January 1980 through 31 December 2000 and a bibliographic review identified English-language studies of S. aureus bacteremia. Studies were included if they contained the numbers of and mortality rates for patients with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) bacteremia. Data were extracted on demographic characteristics of the patients, adjustment for severity and comorbid illness, source of bacteremia, and crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for in-hospital mortality. When the results were pooled with a random-effects model, a significant increase in mortality associated with MRSA bacteremia was evident (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.54-2.42; P<.001); significant heterogeneity was present. We explored the reasons for heterogeneity by means of subgroup analyses. MRSA bacteremia is associated with significantly higher mortality rate than is MSSA bacteremia.
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            The impact of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia on patient outcomes: mortality, length of stay, and hospital charges.

            To evaluate the impact of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus on mortality, length of hospitalization, and hospital charges. A cohort study of patients admitted to the hospital between July 1, 1997, and June 1, 2000, who had clinically significant S. aureus bloodstream infections. A 630-bed, urban, tertiary-care teaching hospital in Boston, Massachusetts. Three hundred forty-eight patients with S. aureus bacteremia were studied; 96 patients had methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Patients with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and MRSA were similar regarding gender, percentage of nosocomial acquisition, length of hospitalization, ICU admission, and surgery before S. aureus bacteremia. They differed regarding age, comorbidities, and illness severity score. Similar numbers of MRSA and MSSA patients died (22.9% vs 19.8%; P = .53). Both the median length of hospitalization after S. aureus bacteremia for patients who survived and the median hospital charges after S. aureus bacteremia were significantly increased in MRSA patients (7 vs 9 days, P = .045; 19,212 dollars vs 26,424 dollars, P = .008). After multivariable analysis, compared with MSSA bacteremia, MRSA bacteremia remained associated with increased length of hospitalization (1.29 fold; P = .016) and hospital charges (1.36 fold; P = .017). MRSA bacteremia had a median attributable length of stay of 2 days and a median attributable hospital charge of 6916 dollars. Methicillin resistance in S. aureus bacteremia is associated with significant increases in length of hospitalization and hospital charges.
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              The impact of antimicrobial resistance on health and economic outcomes.

              Despite an increasing prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens, the health and economic impact of colonization and infection with these organisms has not been fully elucidated. We explore how antimicrobial resistance can affect patient outcomes by enhancing virulence, causing a delay in the administration of appropriate therapy, and limiting available therapy. Next, we examine the different perspectives held by hospitals, third-party payers, patients, and society on the impact of resistance. Finally, we review methodological issues in designing and assessing studies that address the clinical outcomes for patients infected or colonized with resistant pathogens, including adjustment for important confounding variables, control group selection, and the quantification of economic outcomes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Clinical Infectious Diseases
                University of Chicago Press
                1537-6591
                1058-4838
                January 15 2006
                January 15 2006
                January 15 2006
                January 15 2006
                January 15 2006
                January 15 2006
                : 42
                : Supplement_2
                : S82-S89
                Article
                10.1086/499406
                16355321
                db7be446-5ab3-4650-a536-aa4d016ac886
                © 2006
                History

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