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      Translated title: Food insecurity and household food supplies in rural Ecuador

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          Abstract

          Inseguridad alimentaria y suministro de alimentos en hogares rurales de Ecuador. El objetivo de esta investigación es evaluar la validez de una escala doméstica de seguridad alimentaria modificada (HFSSM - en inglés: Household Food Security Survey Module) por medio de su correlación con el suministro de alimentos y características demográficas, así como su ajuste al modelo de Rasch en un área rural de Ecuador. En este estudio examinamos la relación entre la inseguridad alimentaria doméstica y el suministro de alimentos del hogar en 52 familias ecuatorianas. La muestra fue sacada de cuatro comunidades rurales participantes en el proyecto PLAN en el Cantón Quijos. Los cuestionarios aplicados incluyeron la HFSSM modificada, un inventario de despensa del hogar y características sociodemográficas. El análisis estadístico usando un modelo de ANOVA múltiple, mostró resultados inversamente significativos en la relación entre el nivel de seguridad alimentaria doméstica y el número total de alimentos disponibles, así como respecto a el suministro de carnes, verduras, legumbres, grasas y otros alimentos (p=0.05). Los valores de medida (measure values) de los insumos en la HFSSM usando el modelo Rasch muestran que la inseguridad alimentaria se presenta a diferentes niveles de severidad. La mayoría de las preguntas (>75%) presentaron valores de infit apropiados. Este estudio confirma que la HFSSM modificada puede ser útil para medir la inseguridad alimentaria y por eso puede ser usada como una herramienta para monitorear y evaluar programas enfocados en mejorar la cantidad y variedad de alimentos en el área rural de Ecuador.

          Translated abstract

          The objective of this research is to assess the validity of a modified US Household Food Security Survey Module (HFSSM) through its correlation with food supply and demographic factors, and its fitness using Rasch model analysis in rural Ecuador. This study examines the relationship between household food insecurity and household food supplies in 52 Ecuadorian households. Thesample was drawn from four rural communities participating in the project PLAN in Cantón Quijos. Questionnaires included a modified HFSSM, a household food shelf-inventory and demographic characteristics. Multiple ANOVA analysis resulted in statistically significant inverse relationships between household food insecurity and total food supply, as well as the supply of meat, vegetables, legumes, oils, and other food products (p=0.05). Rasch model measure values on the HFSSM illustrated food insecurity at different levels of severity. The majority of the items (>75%) presented adequate infit values. This study affirms that the proposed modified HFSSM may be useful to measure food insecurity and thus be used as a tool to monitor and evaluate programs aimed at improving quantity and variety of food items in rural Ecuador.

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          Most cited references38

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          Development of indicators to assess hunger.

          Despite widespread concern about hunger in America, efforts to monitor and assess the extent of hunger have been hampered by lack of consensus on an appropriate meaning for the term hunger and by the lack of valid indicators to assess it. The first phase of the research used qualitative methods to derive a socially-appropriate definition of hunger. Thirty-two women in Upstate New York were interviewed regarding their experience with food problems and hunger. The interviews were analyzed using the constant comparative method. Results indicated that women had a narrow and a broad concept of hunger. The narrow concept focused on going without food for a specified period of time and the physical sensation of hunger. The broad one included two dimensions: household and individual hunger. Each had quantitative, qualitative, psychological, and social components. The second phase of the research used survey methodology to examine the validity and reliability of items designed to measure the conceptual definition of hunger. The survey was administered to 189 women in Upstate New York who participated in programs designed for low-income households or households in need of food. The second phase confirmed the conceptualization of hunger developed in the first phase. A subset of valid and reliable items that represented each of the major dimensions and components of hunger was identified as being useful for monitoring and assessing hunger.
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            Economic determinants and dietary consequences of food insecurity in the United States.

            D Rose (1999)
            This paper reviews recent research on the economic determinants and dietary consequences of food insecurity and hunger in the United States. The new Current Population Study (CPS) food insecurity and hunger measure shows that hunger rates decline sharply with rising incomes. Despite this strong relationship, confirmed in other national datasets, a one-to-one correspondence between poverty-level incomes and hunger does not exist. In 1995, 13.1% of those in poverty experienced hunger and half of those experiencing hunger had incomes above the poverty level. Panel data indicate that those who are often food insufficient are much more likely than food-sufficient households to have experienced recent events that stress household budgets, such as losing a job, gaining a household member or losing food stamps. Cross-sectional work also demonstrates the importance of food stamps because benefit levels are inversely related to food insufficiency. Concern for the dietary consequences of domestic food insufficiency is well placed; recent research shows that the odds of consuming intakes <50% of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) are higher for adult women and elderly individuals from food-insufficient households. Preschoolers from food-insufficient households do not consume significantly lower amounts than those from food-sufficient households, but mean intakes for the rest of members in those very same households are significantly lower for the food insufficient. This research highlights the importance of food insecurity and hunger indicators, further validates the use of self-reported measures and points to areas of need for future research and interventions.
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              Household food insecurity and food expenditure in Bolivia, Burkina Faso, And the Philippines.

              This study examined the association between food insecurity, determined by a modified version of the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module (US HFSSM), and total daily per capita (DPC) consumption (measured as household expenditures) in Bolivia, Burkina Faso, and the Philippines. Household food insecurity was determined by an adapted 9-item US HFSSM version. A short version of the World Bank's Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS) consumption module measured household expenditures. Focus groups were used to adapt the survey instrument to each local context. The sample (n approximately 330 per country) includes residents of urban and rural areas. A 12-month food expenditure aggregate was generated as part of the total household expenditures calculation. DPC food expenditure, which represented over 60% of the total household consumption, as well as expenditures on specific food groups correlated with food insecurity both as a continuous Food Insecurity Score (FinSS) and a tricategorical food insecurity status variable. ANOVA and regression analysis were executed adjusting for social and demographic covariates. Food-secure households have significantly higher (P < 0.05) total DPC food expenditures as well as expenditures on animal source foods, vegetables, and fats and oils than moderately and severely food-insecure households. The results offer evidence that the US HFSSM is able to discriminate between households at different levels of food insecurity status in diverse developing world settings.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                alan
                Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición
                ALAN
                Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nutrición (Caracas )
                0004-0622
                March 2007
                : 57
                : 1
                : 10-17
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Human Nutrition Ecuador
                Article
                S0004-06222007000100002
                dc33540c-478a-4461-9686-b9099b5c02f3

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                SciELO Venezuela

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0004-0622&lng=en
                Categories
                NUTRITION & DIETETICS

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                Food security,food supply,Rasch model,Ecuador,Seguridad alimentaria,suministro de alimentos,modelo Rasch

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