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      Rivaroxaban in Patients with a Recent Acute Coronary Syndrome

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          Abstract

          Acute coronary syndromes arise from coronary atherosclerosis with superimposed thrombosis. Since factor Xa plays a central role in thrombosis, the inhibition of factor Xa with low-dose rivaroxaban might improve cardiovascular outcomes in patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 15,526 patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome to receive twice-daily doses of either 2.5 mg or 5 mg of rivaroxaban or placebo for a mean of 13 months and up to 31 months. The primary efficacy end point was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Rivaroxaban significantly reduced the primary efficacy end point, as compared with placebo, with respective rates of 8.9% and 10.7% (hazard ratio in the rivaroxaban group, 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74 to 0.96; P=0.008), with significant improvement for both the twice-daily 2.5-mg dose (9.1% vs. 10.7%, P=0.02) and the twice-daily 5-mg dose (8.8% vs. 10.7%, P=0.03). The twice-daily 2.5-mg dose of rivaroxaban reduced the rates of death from cardiovascular causes (2.7% vs. 4.1%, P=0.002) and from any cause (2.9% vs. 4.5%, P=0.002), a survival benefit that was not seen with the twice-daily 5-mg dose. As compared with placebo, rivaroxaban increased the rates of major bleeding not related to coronary-artery bypass grafting (2.1% vs. 0.6%, P<0.001) and intracranial hemorrhage (0.6% vs. 0.2%, P=0.009), without a significant increase in fatal bleeding (0.3% vs. 0.2%, P=0.66) or other adverse events. The twice-daily 2.5-mg dose resulted in fewer fatal bleeding events than the twice-daily 5-mg dose (0.1% vs. 0.4%, P=0.04). In patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome, rivaroxaban reduced the risk of the composite end point of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Rivaroxaban increased the risk of major bleeding and intracranial hemorrhage but not the risk of fatal bleeding. (Funded by Johnson & Johnson and Bayer Healthcare; ATLAS ACS 2-TIMI 51 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00809965.).

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          Most cited references 11

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          Adverse impact of bleeding on prognosis in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

          The use of multiple antithrombotic drugs and aggressive invasive strategies has increased the risk of major bleeding in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. It is not known to what extent bleeding determines clinical outcome. Using Cox proportional-hazards modeling, we examined the association between bleeding and death or ischemic events in 34,146 patients with ACS enrolled in the Organization to Assess Ischemic Syndromes and the Clopidogrel in Unstable Angina to Prevent Recurrent Events studies. Patients with major bleeding were older, more often had diabetes or a history of stroke, had a lower blood pressure and higher serum creatinine, more often had ST-segment changes on the presenting ECG, and had a 5-fold-higher incidence of death during the first 30 days (12.8% versus 2.5%; P < 0.0001) and a 1.5-fold-higher incidence of death between 30 days and 6 months (4.6% versus 2.9%; P = 0.002). Major bleeding was independently associated with an increased hazard of death during the first 30 days (hazard ratio, 5.37; 95% CI, 3.97 to 7.26; P < 0.0001), but the hazard was much weaker after 30 days (hazard ratio, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.01 to 2.36; P = 0.047). The association was consistent across subgroups according to cointerventions during hospitalization, and there was an increasing risk of death with increasing severity of bleeding (minor less than major less than life-threatening; P for trend = 0.0009). A similar association was evident between major bleeding and ischemic events, including myocardial infarction and stroke. In ACS patients without persistent ST-segment elevation, there is a strong, consistent, temporal, and dose-related association between bleeding and death. These data should lead to greater awareness of the prognostic importance of bleeding in ACS and should prompt evaluation of strategies to reduce bleeding and thereby improve clinical outcomes.
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            Apixaban with antiplatelet therapy after acute coronary syndrome.

            Apixaban, an oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor, may reduce the risk of recurrent ischemic events when added to antiplatelet therapy after an acute coronary syndrome. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial comparing apixaban, at a dose of 5 mg twice daily, with placebo, in addition to standard antiplatelet therapy, in patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome and at least two additional risk factors for recurrent ischemic events. The trial was terminated prematurely after recruitment of 7392 patients because of an increase in major bleeding events with apixaban in the absence of a counterbalancing reduction in recurrent ischemic events. With a median follow-up of 241 days, the primary outcome of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke occurred in 279 of the 3705 patients (7.5%) assigned to apixaban (13.2 events per 100 patient-years) and in 293 of the 3687 patients (7.9%) assigned to placebo (14.0 events per 100 patient-years) (hazard ratio with apixaban, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 1.11; P=0.51). The primary safety outcome of major bleeding according to the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) definition occurred in 46 of the 3673 patients (1.3%) who received at least one dose of apixaban (2.4 events per 100 patient-years) and in 18 of the 3642 patients (0.5%) who received at least one dose of placebo (0.9 events per 100 patient-years) (hazard ratio with apixaban, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.50 to 4.46; P=0.001). A greater number of intracranial and fatal bleeding events occurred with apixaban than with placebo. The addition of apixaban, at a dose of 5 mg twice daily, to antiplatelet therapy in high-risk patients after an acute coronary syndrome increased the number of major bleeding events without a significant reduction in recurrent ischemic events. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb and Pfizer; APPRAISE-2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00831441.).
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              Rivaroxaban versus placebo in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ATLAS ACS-TIMI 46): a randomised, double-blind, phase II trial.

              Rivaroxaban is an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor that has been effective in prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing elective orthopaedic surgery. However, its use after acute coronary syndromes has not been investigated. In this setting, we assessed the safety and efficacy of rivaroxaban and aimed to select the most favourable dose and dosing regimen. In this double-blind, dose-escalation, phase II study, undertaken at 297 sites in 27 countries, 3491 patients stabilised after an acute coronary syndrome were stratified on the basis of investigator decision to use aspirin only (stratum 1, n=761) or aspirin plus a thienopyridine (stratum 2, n=2730). Participants were randomised within each strata and dose tier with a block randomisation method at 1:1:1 to receive either placebo or rivaroxaban (at doses 5-20 mg) given once daily or the same total daily dose given twice daily. The primary safety endpoint was clinically significant bleeding (TIMI major, TIMI minor, or requiring medical attention); the primary efficacy endpoint was death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or severe recurrent ischaemia requiring revascularisation during 6 months. Safety analyses included all participants who received at least one dose of study drug; efficacy analyses were by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00402597. Three patients in stratum 1 and 26 in stratum 2 never received the study drug. The risk of clinically significant bleeding with rivaroxaban versus placebo increased in a dose-dependent manner (hazard ratios [HRs] 2.21 [95% CI 1.25-3.91] for 5 mg, 3.35 [2.31-4.87] for 10 mg, 3.60 [2.32-5.58] for 15 mg, and 5.06 [3.45-7.42] for 20 mg doses; p<0.0001). Rates of the primary efficacy endpoint were 5.6% (126/2331) for rivaroxaban versus 7.0% (79/1160) for placebo (HR 0.79 [0.60-1.05], p=0.10). Rivaroxaban reduced the main secondary efficacy endpoint of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke compared with placebo (87/2331 [3.9%] vs 62/1160 [5.5%]; HR 0.69, [95% CI 0.50-0.96], p=0.0270). The most common adverse event in both groups was chest pain (248/2309 [10.7%] vs 118/1153 [10.2%]). The use of an oral factor Xa inhibitor in patients stabilised after an acute coronary syndrome increases bleeding in a dose-dependent manner and might reduce major ischaemic outcomes. On the basis of these observations, a phase III study of low-dose rivaroxaban as adjunctive therapy in these patients is underway. Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development and Bayer Healthcare AG.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                New England Journal of Medicine
                N Engl J Med
                Massachusetts Medical Society
                0028-4793
                1533-4406
                January 05 2012
                January 05 2012
                : 366
                : 1
                : 9-19
                Article
                10.1056/NEJMoa1112277
                22077192
                © 2012
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