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      Commensal bacteria contribute to insulin resistance in aging by activating innate B1a cells

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          Abstract

          Aging in humans is associated with increased hyperglycemia and insulin resistance (collectively termed IR) and dysregulation of the immune system. However, the causative factors underlying their association remain unknown. Here, using "healthy" aged mice and macaques, we found that IR was induced by activated innate 4-1BBL+ B1a cells. These cells (also known as 4BL cells) accumulated in aging in response to changes in gut commensals and a decrease in beneficial metabolites such as butyrate. We found evidence suggesting that loss of the commensal bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila impaired intestinal integrity, causing leakage of bacterial products such as endotoxin, which activated CCR2+ monocytes when butyrate was decreased. Upon infiltration into the omentum, CCR2+ monocytes converted B1a cells into 4BL cells, which, in turn, induced IR by expressing 4-1BBL, presumably to trigger 4-1BB receptor signaling as in obesity-induced metabolic disorders. This pathway and IR were reversible, as supplementation with either A. muciniphila or the antibiotic enrofloxacin, which increased the abundance of A. muciniphila, restored normal insulin response in aged mice and macaques. In addition, treatment with butyrate or antibodies that depleted CCR2+ monocytes or 4BL cells had the same effect on IR. These results underscore the pathological function of B1a cells and suggest that the microbiome–monocyte–B cell axis could potentially be targeted to reverse age-associated IR.

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          Most cited references 37

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          FLASH: fast length adjustment of short reads to improve genome assemblies.

          Next-generation sequencing technologies generate very large numbers of short reads. Even with very deep genome coverage, short read lengths cause problems in de novo assemblies. The use of paired-end libraries with a fragment size shorter than twice the read length provides an opportunity to generate much longer reads by overlapping and merging read pairs before assembling a genome. We present FLASH, a fast computational tool to extend the length of short reads by overlapping paired-end reads from fragment libraries that are sufficiently short. We tested the correctness of the tool on one million simulated read pairs, and we then applied it as a pre-processor for genome assemblies of Illumina reads from the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and human chromosome 14. FLASH correctly extended and merged reads >99% of the time on simulated reads with an error rate of <1%. With adequately set parameters, FLASH correctly merged reads over 90% of the time even when the reads contained up to 5% errors. When FLASH was used to extend reads prior to assembly, the resulting assemblies had substantially greater N50 lengths for both contigs and scaffolds. The FLASH system is implemented in C and is freely available as open-source code at http://www.cbcb.umd.edu/software/flash. t.magoc@gmail.com.
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            MCP-1 contributes to macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in obesity.

            Adipocytes secrete a variety of bioactive molecules that affect the insulin sensitivity of other tissues. We now show that the abundance of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) mRNA in adipose tissue and the plasma concentration of MCP-1 were increased both in genetically obese diabetic (db/db) mice and in WT mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet. Mice engineered to express an MCP-1 transgene in adipose tissue under the control of the aP2 gene promoter exhibited insulin resistance, macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue, and increased hepatic triglyceride content. Furthermore, insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, and macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue induced by a high-fat diet were reduced extensively in MCP-1 homozygous KO mice compared with WT animals. Finally, acute expression of a dominant-negative mutant of MCP-1 ameliorated insulin resistance in db/db mice and in WT mice fed a high-fat diet. These findings suggest that an increase in MCP-1 expression in adipose tissue contributes to the macrophage infiltration into this tissue, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis associated with obesity in mice.
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              Through Ageing, and Beyond: Gut Microbiota and Inflammatory Status in Seniors and Centenarians

              Background Age-related physiological changes in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as modifications in lifestyle, nutritional behaviour, and functionality of the host immune system, inevitably affect the gut microbiota, resulting in a greater susceptibility to infections. Methodology/Principal Findings By using the Human Intestinal Tract Chip (HITChip) and quantitative PCR of 16S rRNA genes of Bacteria and Archaea, we explored the age-related differences in the gut microbiota composition among young adults, elderly, and centenarians, i.e subjects who reached the extreme limits of the human lifespan, living for over 100 years. We observed that the microbial composition and diversity of the gut ecosystem of young adults and seventy-years old people is highly similar but differs significantly from that of the centenarians. After 100 years of symbiotic association with the human host, the microbiota is characterized by a rearrangement in the Firmicutes population and an enrichment in facultative anaerobes, notably pathobionts. The presence of such a compromised microbiota in the centenarians is associated with an increased inflammatory status, also known as inflammageing, as determined by a range of peripheral blood inflammatory markers. This may be explained by a remodelling of the centenarians' microbiota, with a marked decrease in Faecalibacterium prauznitzii and relatives, symbiotic species with reported anti-inflammatory properties. As signature bacteria of the long life we identified specifically Eubacterium limosum and relatives that were more than ten-fold increased in the centenarians. Conclusions/Significance We provide evidence for the fact that the ageing process deeply affects the structure of the human gut microbiota, as well as its homeostasis with the host's immune system. Because of its crucial role in the host physiology and health status, age-related differences in the gut microbiota composition may be related to the progression of diseases and frailty in the elderly population.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Science Translational Medicine
                Sci. Transl. Med.
                American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
                1946-6234
                1946-6242
                November 14 2018
                November 14 2018
                November 14 2018
                November 14 2018
                : 10
                : 467
                : eaat4271
                Article
                10.1126/scitranslmed.aat4271
                © 2018

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