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      Endocrine aspects of acute and prolonged critical illness.

      Nature clinical practice. Endocrinology & metabolism

      Acute Disease, Adrenal Glands, secretion, Catecholamines, Chronic Disease, Critical Illness, Endocrine System, physiopathology, Gonads, Hormones, therapeutic use, Models, Biological, Thyroid Gland, Vasopressins

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          Abstract

          Critical illness is characterized by striking alterations in the hypothalamic-anterior-pituitary-peripheral-hormone axes, the severity of which is associated with a high risk of morbidity and mortality. Most attempts to correct hormone balance have been shown ineffective or even harmful because of a lack of pathophysiologic insight. There is a biphasic (neuro)endocrine response to critical illness. The acute phase is characterized by an actively secreting pituitary, but the concentrations of most peripheral effector hormones are low, partly due to the development of target-organ resistance. In contrast, in prolonged critical illness, uniform (predominantly hypothalamic) suppression of the (neuro)endocrine axes contributes to the low serum levels of the respective target-organ hormones. The adaptations in the acute phase are considered to be beneficial for short-term survival. In the chronic phase, however, the observed (neuro)endocrine alterations appear to contribute to the general wasting syndrome. With the exception of intensive insulin therapy, and perhaps hydrocortisone administration for a subgroup of patients, no hormonal intervention has proven to beneficially affect outcome. The combined administration of hypothalamic releasing factors does, however, hold promise as a safe therapy to reverse the (neuro)endocrine and metabolic abnormalities of prolonged critical illness by concomitant reactivation of the different anterior-pituitary axes.

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          Most cited references 58

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              The goal of this review is to place the exciting advances that have occurred in our understanding of the molecular biology of the types 1, 2, and 3 (D1, D2, and D3, respectively) iodothyronine deiodinases into a biochemical and physiological context. We review new data regarding the mechanism of selenoprotein synthesis, the molecular and cellular biological properties of the individual deiodinases, including gene structure, mRNA and protein characteristics, tissue distribution, subcellular localization and topology, enzymatic properties, structure-activity relationships, and regulation of synthesis, inactivation, and degradation. These provide the background for a discussion of their role in thyroid physiology in humans and other vertebrates, including evidence that D2 plays a significant role in human plasma T(3) production. We discuss the pathological role of D3 overexpression causing "consumptive hypothyroidism" as well as our current understanding of the pathophysiology of iodothyronine deiodination during illness and amiodarone therapy. Finally, we review the new insights from analysis of mice with targeted disruption of the Dio2 gene and overexpression of D2 in the myocardium.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                16932250
                10.1038/ncpendmet0071

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