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      Second Malignant Neoplasms Following Radiotherapy

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          Abstract

          More than half of all cancer patients receive radiotherapy as a part of their treatment. With the increasing number of long-term cancer survivors, there is a growing concern about the risk of radiation induced second malignant neoplasm [SMN]. This risk appears to be highest for survivors of childhood cancers. The exact mechanism and dose-response relationship for radiation induced malignancy is not well understood, however, there have been growing efforts to develop strategies for the prevention and mitigation of radiation induced cancers. This review article focuses on the incidence, etiology, and risk factors for SMN in various organs after radiotherapy.

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          Most cited references55

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          Intensity-modulated radiation therapy, protons, and the risk of second cancers.

          Eric Hall (2006)
          Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) allows dose to be concentrated in the tumor volume while sparing normal tissues. However, the downside to IMRT is the potential to increase the number of radiation-induced second cancers. The reasons for this potential are more monitor units and, therefore, a larger total-body dose because of leakage radiation and, because IMRT involves more fields, a bigger volume of normal tissue is exposed to lower radiation doses. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy may double the incidence of solid cancers in long-term survivors. This outcome may be acceptable in older patients if balanced by an improvement in local tumor control and reduced acute toxicity. On the other hand, the incidence of second cancers is much higher in children, so that doubling it may not be acceptable. IMRT represents a special case for children for three reasons. First, children are more sensitive to radiation-induced cancer than are adults. Second, radiation scattered from the treatment volume is more important in the small body of the child. Third, the question of genetic susceptibility arises because many childhood cancers involve a germline mutation. The levels of leakage radiation in current Linacs are not inevitable. Leakage can be reduced but at substantial cost. An alternative strategy is to replace X-rays with protons. However, this change is only an advantage if the proton machine employs a pencil scanning beam. Many proton facilities use passive modulation to produce a field of sufficient size, but the use of a scattering foil produces neutrons, which results in an effective dose to the patient higher than that characteristic of IMRT. The benefit of protons is only achieved if a scanning beam is used in which the doses are 10 times lower than with IMRT.
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            Tobacco smoking and cancer: a brief review of recent epidemiological evidence.

            This report summarises the epidemiological evidence on the association between tobacco smoking and cancer, which was reviewed by an international group of scientists convened by IARC. Studies published since the 1986 IARC Monograph on "Tobacco smoking" provide sufficient evidence to establish a causal association between cigarette smoking and cancer of the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx, stomach, liver, kidney (renal cell carcinoma) and uterine cervix, and for adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus and myeloid leukaemia. These sites add to the previously established list of cancers causally associated with cigarette smoking, namely cancer of the lung, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus, pancreas, urinary bladder and renal pelvis. Other forms of tobacco smoking, such as cigars, pipes and bidis, also increase risk for cancer, including cancer of the lung and parts of the upper aerodigestive tract. A meta-analysis of over 50 studies on involuntary smoking among never smokers showed a consistent and statistically significant association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and lung cancer risk. Smoking is currently responsible for a third of all cancer deaths in many Western countries. It has been estimated that every other smoker will be killed by tobacco.
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              Subsequent neoplasms in 5-year survivors of childhood cancer: the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

              The occurrence of subsequent neoplasms has direct impact on the quantity and quality of life in cancer survivors. We have expanded our analysis of these events in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) to better understand the occurrence of these events as the survivor population ages. The incidence of and risk for subsequent neoplasms occurring 5 years or more after the childhood cancer diagnosis were determined among 14,359 5-year survivors in the CCSS who were treated from 1970 through 1986 and who were at a median age of 30 years (range = 5-56 years) for this analysis. At 30 years after childhood cancer diagnosis, we calculated cumulative incidence at 30 years of subsequent neoplasms and calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), excess absolute risks (EARs) for invasive second malignant neoplasms, and relative risks for subsequent neoplasms by use of multivariable Poisson regression. Among 14,359 5-year survivors, 1402 subsequently developed 2703 neoplasms. Cumulative incidence at 30 years after the childhood cancer diagnosis was 20.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 19.1% to 21.8%) for all subsequent neoplasms, 7.9% (95% CI = 7.2% to 8.5%) for second malignant neoplasms (excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer), 9.1% (95% CI = 8.1% to 10.1%) for nonmelanoma skin cancer, and 3.1% (95% CI = 2.5% to 3.8%) for meningioma. Excess risk was evident for all primary diagnoses (EAR = 2.6 per 1000 person-years, 95% CI = 2.4 to 2.9 per 1000 person-years; SIR = 6.0, 95% CI = 5.5 to 6.4), with the highest being for Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR = 8.7, 95% CI = 7.7 to 9.8) and Ewing sarcoma (SIR = 8.5, 95% CI = 6.2 to 11.7). In the Poisson multivariable analysis, female sex, older age at diagnosis, earlier treatment era, diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma, and treatment with radiation therapy were associated with increased risk of subsequent neoplasm. As childhood cancer survivors progress through adulthood, risk of subsequent neoplasms increases. Patients surviving Hodgkin lymphoma are at greatest risk. There is no evidence of risk reduction with increasing duration of follow-up.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                ijerph
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                MDPI
                1661-7827
                1660-4601
                18 December 2012
                December 2012
                : 9
                : 12
                : 4744-4759
                Affiliations
                Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit MI 48202, USA; E-Mail: skumar4@ 123456hfhs.org ; Tel.: +1-313-916-1021; Fax: +1-313-916-3264
                Article
                ijerph-09-04744
                10.3390/ijerph9124744
                3546788
                23249860
                e17e3d82-50cb-44f7-b56d-c2fa37547184
                © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

                History
                : 10 October 2012
                : 06 December 2012
                : 06 December 2012
                Categories
                Review

                Public health
                radiation,second malignancy,cancer therapy,side effects,radiotherapy,neoplasm
                Public health
                radiation, second malignancy, cancer therapy, side effects, radiotherapy, neoplasm

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