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      Prevalence and Genetic Characterization of Cryptosporidium Spp. In Diarrheic Children from Gonbad Kavoos City, Iran

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          Abstract

          Background: Cryptosporidium is an intestinal protozean parasite causing waterborne and foodborne outbreaks of diarrheal diseases. The present study was performed in order to find prevalence and subtypes of Cryptosporidium among children with diarrhea in Gonbad Kavoos City, Northern Iran.

          Methods: Diarrheic samples were collected from 547 children. The initial parasitological diagnosis was made based on detection of oocysts using the modified Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast staining method. The positive microscopically samples were selected for sequence analysis of partial 60 kDa glycoprotein ( gp60) gene.

          Results: Out of 547 collected samples, 27 (4.94%) were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Fifteen from 27 positive samples successfully amplified in PCR. Sequences analysis of gp60 gene in 15 Cryptosporidium isolates revealed that all of them (100%) were C. parvum. The results showed three subtypes of IIa subtype family (7 cases) including IIaA16G2R1, IIaA17G1R1, IIaA22G3R1 and one subtype of IId subtype family (8 cases). The most common allele was IId A17G1d (53.3%).

          Conclusion: The predominance of zoonotic subtype families of C. parvum species (IIa, IId) in the present study is in concordance with previous studies in Iran and emphasizes the significance of zoonotic transmission of cryptosporidiosis in the country.

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          Most cited references 49

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          Unique endemicity of cryptosporidiosis in children in Kuwait.

          To understand the transmission of Cryptosporidium infection in children, fecal specimens from 62 Kuwaiti children with gastrointestinal symptoms found to be positive by microscopy were genotyped and subtyped with a small subunit rRNA-based PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and a 60-kDa glycoprotein-based DNA sequencing tool. The median age of infected children was 4.5 years, and 77% of infections occurred during the cool season of November to April. Fifty-eight of the children (94%) had Cryptosporidium parvum, three (5%) had Cryptosporidium hominis, and one (1%) had both C. parvum and C. hominis. Altogether, 13 subtypes of C. parvum (belonging to four subtype allele families) and C. hominis (belonging to three subtype allele families) were observed, with 92% of specimens belonging to the common allele family IIa and the unusual allele family IId. Thus, the transmission of cryptosporidiosis in Kuwaiti children differed significantly from other tropical countries.
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            Epidemiology of Cryptosporidium: transmission, detection and identification.

            There are 10 valid species of Cryptosporidium and perhaps other cryptic species hidden under the umbrella of Cryptosporidium parvum. The oocyst stage is of primary importance for the dispersal, survival, and infectivity of the parasite and is of major importance for detection and identification. Because most oocysts measure 4-6 microm, appear nearly spherical, and have obscure internal structures, there are few or no morphometric features to differentiate species and in vitro cultivation does not provide differential data as for bacteria. Consequently, we rely on a combination of data from three tools: morphometrics, molecular techniques, and host specificity. Of 152 species of mammals reported to be infected with C. parvum or an indistinguishable organism, very few oocysts have ever been examined using more than one of these tools. This paper reviews the valid species of Cryptosporidium, their hosts and morphometrics; the reported hosts for the human pathogen, C. parvum; the mechanisms of transmission; the drinking water, recreational water, and food-borne outbreaks resulting from infection with C. parvum; and the microscopic, immunological, and molecular methods used to detect and identify species and genotypes.
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              Cryptosporidium: a water-borne zoonotic parasite.

               Ronald Fayer (2004)
              Of 155 species of mammals reported to be infected with Cryptosporidium parvum or C. parvum-like organisms most animals are found in the Orders Artiodactyla, Primates, and Rodentia. Because Cryptosporidium from most of these animals have been identified by oocyst morphology alone with little or no host specificity and/or molecular data to support identification it is not known how many of the reported isolates are actually C. parvum or other species. Cryptosporidiosis is a cause of morbidity and mortality in animals and humans, resulting primarily in diarrhea, and resulting in the most severe infections in immune-compromised individuals. Of 15 named species of Cryptosporidium infectious for nonhuman vertebrate hosts C. baileyi, C. canis, C. felis, C. hominis, C. meleagridis, C. muris, and C. parvum have been reported to also infect humans. Humans are the primary hosts for C. hominis, and except for C. parvum, which is widespread amongst nonhuman hosts and is the most frequently reported zoonotic species, the remaining species have been reported primarily in immunocompromised humans. The oocyst stage can remain infective under cool, moist conditions for many months, especially where water temperatures in rivers, lakes, and ponds remain low but above freezing. Surveys of surface water, groundwater, estuaries, and seawater have dispelled the assumption that Cryptosporidium oocysts are present infrequently and in geographically isolated locations. Numerous reports of outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis related to drinking water in North America, the UK, and Japan, where detection methods are in place, indicate that water is a major vehicle for transmission of cryptosporidiosis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Iran J Parasitol
                Iran J Parasitol
                IJPA
                Iranian Journal of Parasitology
                Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Tehran, Iran )
                1735-7020
                2008-238X
                Jul-Sep 2015
                : 10
                : 3
                : 441-447
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Laboratory Science Research Center, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran
                [2 ] Dept. of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran
                [3 ] Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                [4 ] Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
                [5 ] Laboratory of Gonbad Health Center, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran
                Author notes
                Article
                IJPA-10-441
                4662744
                26622299
                Copyright © Iranian Society of Parasitology & Tehran University of Medical Sciences

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Original Article

                Parasitology

                cryptosporidium, subtypes, gp60 gene, children, iran

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