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      Distinct pattern of Th17/Treg cells in pregnant women with a history of unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion

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          Bidirectional cytokine interactions in the maternal-fetal relationship: is successful pregnancy a TH2 phenomenon?

          Pregnant females are susceptible to intracellular pathogens and are biased towards humoral rather than cell-mediated immunity. Since TH1 cytokines compromise pregnancy and TH2 cytokines are produced at the maternal-fetal interface, we hypothesize that these TH2 cytokines inhibit TH1 responses, improving fetal survival but impairing responses against some pathogens.
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            Th1/Th2/Th17 and regulatory T-cell paradigm in pregnancy.

            T-helper (Th) cells play a central role in modulating immune responses. The Th1/Th2 paradigm has now developed into the new Th1/Th2/Th17 paradigm. In addition to effector cells, Th cells are regulated by regulatory T (Treg) cells. Their capacity to produce cytokines is suppressed by immunoregulatory cytokines such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta and interleukin (IL)-10 or by cell-to-cell interaction. Here, we will review the immunological environment in normal pregnancy and complicated pregnancy, such as implantation failure, abortion, preterm labor, and preeclampsia from the viewpoint of the new Th1/Th2/Th17 and Treg paradigms.
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              Is Open Access

              How do Regulatory T Cells Work?

               A Corthay (2009)
              CD4+ T cells are commonly divided into regulatory T (Treg) cells and conventional T helper (Th) cells. Th cells control adaptive immunity against pathogens and cancer by activating other effector immune cells. Treg cells are defined as CD4+ T cells in charge of suppressing potentially deleterious activities of Th cells. This review briefly summarizes the current knowledge in the Treg field and defines some key questions that remain to be answered. Suggested functions for Treg cells include: prevention of autoimmune diseases by maintaining self-tolerance; suppression of allergy, asthma and pathogen-induced immunopathology; feto-maternal tolerance; and oral tolerance. Identification of Treg cells remains problematic, because accumulating evidence suggests that all the presently-used Treg markers (CD25, CTLA-4, GITR, LAG-3, CD127 and Foxp3) represent general T-cell activation markers, rather than being truly Treg-specific. Treg-cell activation is antigen-specific, which implies that suppressive activities of Treg cells are antigen-dependent. It has been proposed that Treg cells would be self-reactive, but extensive TCR repertoire analysis suggests that self-reactivity may be the exception rather than the rule. The classification of Treg cells as a separate lineage remains controversial because the ability to suppress is not an exclusive Treg property. Suppressive activities attributed to Treg cells may in reality, at least in some experimental settings, be exerted by conventional Th cell subsets, such as Th1, Th2, Th17 and T follicular (Tfh) cells. Recent reports have also demonstrated that Foxp3+ Treg cells may differentiate in vivo into conventional effector Th cells, with or without concomitant downregulation of Foxp3.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BioScience Trends
                BST
                International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement (IRCA-BSSA)
                1881-7815
                1881-7823
                2018
                April 30 2018
                : 12
                : 2
                : 157-167
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Laboratory for Reproductive Immunology, Hospital & Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University
                [2 ]The Academy of Integrative Medicine of Fudan University
                [3 ]Shanghai Key Laboratory of Female Reproductive Endocrine Related Diseases
                Article
                10.5582/bst.2018.01012
                © 2018

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