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      REV-ERBα Inhibits the PTGS2 Expression in Bovine Uterus Endometrium Stromal and Epithelial Cells Exposed to Ovarian Steroids

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          The nuclear receptor REV-ERBα (encoded by NR1D1) has a critical role in metabolism and physiology as well as circadian rhythm. Here, we investigated the possible contribution of clock genes including NR1D1 to the secretion of prostaglandin F 2α (PGF 2α) from bovine uterine stromal (USCs) and epithelial cells (UECs) by modulating the expression of PTGS2. The circadian oscillation of clock genes in the cells was weak compared with that reported in rodents, but the expression of BMAL1, PER1, and NR1D1 was changed temporally by treatment with ovarian steroids. Significant expression of clock genes including NR1D1 was detected in USCs exposed to progesterone. NR1D1 was also significantly expressed in UECs exposed to estradiol. The expression of PTGS2 was suppressed in USCs exposed to progesterone, while the expression was initially suppressed in UECs exposed to estradiol and then increased after long-term exposure to estradiol. BMAL1 knockdown with specific siRNA caused a significant decrease in the transcript levels of NR1D1 and PTGS2 in USCs, but not in UECs. The production of PGF 2α also decreased in USCs after BMAL1 knockdown, while its level did not significantly change in UECs. The transcript level of PTGS2 was increased by treatment with the antagonist of REV-ERBα in both cell types, but the agonist was ineffective. In these two cell types treated with the agonist or antagonist, the PGF 2α production coincided well with the PTGS2 expression. Collectively, these results indicate that REV-ERBα plays an inhibitory role in the expression of PTGS2 in both bovine USCs and UECs treated with ovarian steroids.

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          Interacting molecular loops in the mammalian circadian clock.

          We show that, in the mouse, the core mechanism for the master circadian clock consists of interacting positive and negative transcription and translation feedback loops. Analysis of Clock/Clock mutant mice, homozygous Period2(Brdm1) mutants, and Cryptochrome-deficient mice reveals substantially altered Bmal1 rhythms, consistent with a dominant role of PERIOD2 in the positive regulation of the Bmal1 loop. In vitro analysis of CRYPTOCHROME inhibition of CLOCK: BMAL1-mediated transcription shows that the inhibition is through direct protein:protein interactions, independent of the PERIOD and TIMELESS proteins. PERIOD2 is a positive regulator of the Bmal1 loop, and CRYPTOCHROMES are the negative regulators of the Period and Cryptochrome cycles.
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            System-level identification of transcriptional circuits underlying mammalian circadian clocks.

            Mammalian circadian clocks consist of complexly integrated regulatory loops, making it difficult to elucidate them without both the accurate measurement of system dynamics and the comprehensive identification of network circuits. Toward a system-level understanding of this transcriptional circuitry, we identified clock-controlled elements on 16 clock and clock-controlled genes in a comprehensive surveillance of evolutionarily conserved cis elements and measurement of their transcriptional dynamics. Here we report the roles of E/E' boxes, DBP/E4BP4 binding elements and RevErbA/ROR binding elements in nine, seven and six genes, respectively. Our results indicate that circadian transcriptional circuits are governed by two design principles: regulation of E/E' boxes and RevErbA/ROR binding elements follows a repressor-precedes-activator pattern, resulting in delayed transcriptional activity, whereas regulation of DBP/E4BP4 binding elements follows a repressor-antiphasic-to-activator mechanism, which generates high-amplitude transcriptional activity. Our analysis further suggests that regulation of E/E' boxes is a topological vulnerability in mammalian circadian clocks, a concept that has been functionally verified using in vitro phenotype assay systems.
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              Differential control of Bmal1 circadian transcription by REV-ERB and ROR nuclear receptors.

              Circadian rhythms result from feedback loops involving clock genes and their protein products. In mammals, 2 orphan nuclear receptors, REV-ERBalpha and RORalpha, play important roles in the transcription of the clock gene Bmal1. The authors now considerably extend these findings with the demonstration that all members of the REV-ERB (alpha and beta) and ROR (alpha, beta, and gamma) families repress and activate Bmal1 transcription, respectively. The authors further show that transcription of Bmal1 is the result of competition between REV-ERBs and RORs at their specific response elements (RORE). Moreover, they demonstrate that Reverb genes are similarly expressed in the thymus, skeletal muscle, and kidney, whereas Ror genes present distinct expression patterns. Thus, the results indicate that all members of the REV-ERB and ROR families are crucial components of the molecular circadian clock. Furthermore, their strikingly different patterns of expression in nervous and peripheral tissues provide important insights into functional differences between circadian clocks within the organism.

                Author and article information

                J Reprod Dev
                J. Reprod. Dev
                The Journal of Reproduction and Development
                The Society for Reproduction and Development
                10 July 2014
                October 2014
                : 60
                : 5
                : 362-370
                [1) ]Department of Animal and Marine Bioresource Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: M Hattori (e-mail: mhattori@ )
                ©2014 Society for Reproduction and Development

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives (by-nc-nd) License.

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