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      Left Ventricular Structure and Function in Primary Hyperparathyroidism before and after Parathyroidectomy


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          Objective: Our aim was to study the effect of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and parathyroidectomy (PTX) on left ventricular (LV) wall thicknesses and systolic and diastolic function. Methods: Fifteen patients with untreated PHPT were evaluated by applying Doppler and digitized M-mode echocardiography before and 2–3 months after PTX. Fifteen age- and sex-matched healthy controls were also examined echocardiographically. Results: Prior to PTX, interventricular septal thickness (IVST), LV mass (LVM), aortic root dimension and left atrium dimension were greater and LV fractional shortening was slightly decreased in patients as compared to controls. Significantly increased LV peak late diastolic velocity (A<sub>max</sub>) and isovolumic relaxation time, and a slightly decreased ratio of peak early to peak late diastolic velocities (E/A<sub>max</sub>) in the patients indicated impairment of LV diastolic function in hyperparathyroidism. PTX reduced serum total Ca from 2.79 ± 0.13 to 2.39 ± 0.09 mmol/l (p < 0.001) and tended to reduce IVST [10.6 ± 2.1 vs. 10.4 ± 2.0 mm; not significant (n.s.)], LV posterior wall thickness (9.6 ± 2.0 vs. 9.2 ± 1.0 mm, n.s.) and LVM (250 ± 102 vs. 213 ± 42 g; n.s.). Before PTX, there was a significant correlation between serum total Ca and LVM (r = 0.63, p < 0.05), and the PTX-induced change in serum total calcium correlated with the change in LVM (r = 0.59, p < 0.05). PTX induced no significant changes in LV systolic or diastolic function during the follow-up of 2–3 months. Conclusions: The present findings indicate that PHPT induces LV hypertrophy, slight impairment of LV systolic function and significant impairment of LV diastolic function, which are not substantially improved after TX and 2–3 months of normocalcemia.

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          Echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular hypertrophy: comparison to necropsy findings.

          To determine the accuracy of echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) dimension and mass measurements for detection and quantification of LV hypertrophy, results of blindly read antemortem echocardiograms were compared with LV mass measurements made at necropsy in 55 patients. LV mass was calculated using M-mode LV measurements by Penn and American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) conventions and cube function and volume correction formulas in 52 patients. Penn-cube LV mass correlated closely with necropsy LV mass (r = 0.92, p less than 0.001) and overestimated it by only 6%; sensitivity in 18 patients with LV hypertrophy (necropsy LV mass more than 215 g) was 100% (18 of 18 patients) and specificity was 86% (29 of 34 patients). ASE-cube LV mass correlated similarly to necropsy LV mass (r = 0.90, p less than 0.001), but systematically overestimated it (by a mean of 25%); the overestimation could be corrected by the equation: LV mass = 0.80 (ASE-cube LV mass) + 0.6 g. Use of ASE measurements in the volume correction formula systematically underestimated necropsy LV mass (by a mean of 30%). In a subset of 9 patients, 3 of whom had technically inadequate M-mode echocardiograms, 2-dimensional echocardiographic (echo) LV mass by 2 methods was also significantly related to necropsy LV mass (r = 0.68, p less than 0.05 and r = 0.82, p less than 0.01). Among other indexes of LV anatomy, only measurement of myocardial cross-sectional area was acceptably accurate for quantitation of LV mass (r = 0.80, p less than 0.001) or diagnosis of LV hypertrophy (sensitivity = 72%, specificity = 94%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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            Left ventricular hypertrophy in primary hyperparathyroidism. Effects of successful parathyroidectomy.

            The association between primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and increased mortality mainly from cardiovascular disease is still debated. The increased mortality previously reported in PHPT was not confirmed in a recent population based study. A high prevalence of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy was, however, reported in this disease. Although arterial hypertension is regarded as the principal factor, the pathogenesis of LV hypertrophy in PHPT is complex and not completely defined, moreover the effects of successful parathyroidectomy (PTX) are not fully elucidated. The aims of this study were: to ascertain the prevalence of LV hypertrophy in a series of patients with PHPT in comparison to a control population, to seek for relationship between biochemical markers of disease, blood pressure (BP) levels and LV measurements and to evaluate the effects of successful PTX on LV hypertrophy during short-term follow-up. Forty-three patients affected by active PHPT (16 males and 27 females, mean age 60.2 +/- 12.7 years) and 43 controls age- and sex-matched with the same prevalence of arterial hypertension were studied in a case-control analysis. Each subject underwent a M- and 2D mode echocardiographic evaluation and repeated BP measurement. In 21 PHPT submitted to surgery the echocardiographic measurement was repeated 6 months after successful PTX. Serum concentrations of parathyroid hormone (PTH), total-(Ca) and ionized calcium (iCa), phosphate, creatinine, total alkaline phosphatase (TALP) were measured in patients with PHPT at diagnosis and six months after PTX in the subgroup operated on; BP values were measured in three different occasion; mono and 2D echocardiographic evaluation was performed in control subjects and patients with PHPT either before and after PTX. LV hypertrophy, measured by LV mass index (LVMI), was present in 28/43 PHPT patients (65.1%) and in 15/43 (34.8%) controls, P < 0.05; among hypertensive subjects, 21/21 (100%) PHPT patients and 13/21 (61.9%) controls P < 0.05 were hypertrophic while among normotensive subjects, these figures were 7/22 (31.8%) for PHPT patients and 2/22 (9%) for controls, P = 0.67. At multiple regression analysis in a model including biochemical parameters and BP values, serum PTH levels were associated with LVMI values as the strongest predicting variable (0.46, P < 0.02). Six months after PTX, LVMI decreased (137.8 +/- 37.3 vs 113.0 +/- 28.5, P < 0.05) without changes in mean BP values and ratio of hypertensive patients. The present data confirm the high prevalence of LV hypertrophy in primary hyperparathyroidism also in a group of patients with an asymptomatic clinical presentation. The correlation between PTH values and left ventricular mass index suggests an action of the hormone in the pathogenesis of LV hypertrophy confirmed also by the decrease of left ventricular mass index after the reduction of PTH levels. The reversal of left ventricular mass index after parathyroidectomy could affect mortality in primary hyperparathyroidism. An echocardiographic study could be suggested in the clinical work-up of primary hyperparathyroidism in order to evaluate heart involvement and the response to successful parathyroidectomy.
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              Immunologic and psychologic therapy for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

              To evaluate the potential benefit of immunologic therapy with dialyzable leukocyte extract and psychologic treatment in the form of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Immunologic and psychologic treatments were administered to 90 adult patients who fulfilled diagnostic criteria for CFS in a double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled study. A four-cell trial design allowed the assessment of benefit from immunologic and psychologic treatment individually or in combination. Outcome was evaluated by measurement of global well-being (visual analogue scales), physical capacity (standardized diaries of daily activities), functional status (Karnofsky performance scale), and psychologic morbidity (Profile of Mood States questionnaire), and cell-mediated immunity was evaluated by peripheral blood T-cell subset analysis and delayed-type hypersensitivity skin testing. Neither dialyzable leukocyte extract nor CBT (alone or in combination) provided greater benefit than the nonspecific treatment regimens. In this study, patients with CFS did not demonstrate a specific response to immunologic and/or psychologic therapy. The improvement recorded in the group as a whole may reflect both nonspecific treatment effects and a propensity to remission in the natural history of this disorder.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                September 2000
                02 October 2000
                : 93
                : 4
                : 229-233
                aMedical School, University of Tampere, bTampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland
                7031 Cardiology 2000;93:229–233
                © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Tables: 2, References: 28, Pages: 5
                General Cardiology

                General medicine,Neurology,Cardiovascular Medicine,Internal medicine,Nephrology
                Cardiac function,Parathyroidectomy,Primary hyperparathyroidism


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