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      The IPEA dilemma in CASPT2†

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      Chemical Science
      Royal Society of Chemistry

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          Abstract

          We show that the use of the IPEA correction in CASPT2 for excited state calculations of organic chromophores is not justified.

          Abstract

          Multi-configurational second order perturbation theory (CASPT2) has become a very popular method for describing excited-state properties since its development in 1990. To account for systematic errors found in the calculation of dissociation energies, an empirical correction applied to the zeroth-order Hamiltonian, called the IPEA shift, was introduced in 2004. The errors were attributed to an unbalanced description of open-shell versus closed-shell electronic states and is believed to also lead to an underestimation of excitation energies. Here we show that the use of the IPEA shift is not justified and the IPEA should not be used to calculate excited states, at least for organic chromophores. This conclusion is the result of three extensive analyses. Firstly, we survey the literature for excitation energies of organic molecules that have been calculated with the unmodified CASPT2 method. We find that the excitation energies of 356 reference values are negligibly underestimated by 0.02 eV. This value is an order of magnitude smaller than the expected error based on the calculation of dissociation energies. Secondly, we perform benchmark full configuration interaction calculations on 137 states of 13 di- and triatomic molecules and compare the results with CASPT2. Also in this case, the excited states are underestimated by only 0.05 eV. Finally, we perform CASPT2 calculations with different IPEA shift values on 309 excited states of 28 organic small and medium-sized organic chromophores. We demonstrate that the size of the IPEA correction scales with the amount of dynamical correlation energy (and thus with the size of the system), and gets immoderate already for the molecules considered here, leading to an overestimation of the excitation energies. It is also found that the IPEA correction strongly depends on the size of the basis set. The dependency on both the size of the system and of the basis set, contradicts the idea of a universal IPEA shift which is able to compensate for systematic CASPT2 errors in the calculation of excited states.

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          Molcas 8: New capabilities for multiconfigurational quantum chemical calculations across the periodic table.

          In this report, we summarize and describe the recent unique updates and additions to the Molcas quantum chemistry program suite as contained in release version 8. These updates include natural and spin orbitals for studies of magnetic properties, local and linear scaling methods for the Douglas-Kroll-Hess transformation, the generalized active space concept in MCSCF methods, a combination of multiconfigurational wave functions with density functional theory in the MC-PDFT method, additional methods for computation of magnetic properties, methods for diabatization, analytical gradients of state average complete active space SCF in association with density fitting, methods for constrained fragment optimization, large-scale parallel multireference configuration interaction including analytic gradients via the interface to the Columbus package, and approximations of the CASPT2 method to be used for computations of large systems. In addition, the report includes the description of a computational machinery for nonlinear optical spectroscopy through an interface to the QM/MM package Cobramm. Further, a module to run molecular dynamics simulations is added, two surface hopping algorithms are included to enable nonadiabatic calculations, and the DQ method for diabatization is added. Finally, we report on the subject of improvements with respects to alternative file options and parallelization.
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            Progress and challenges in the calculation of electronic excited states.

            A detailed understanding of the properties of electronic excited states and the reaction mechanisms that molecules undergo after light irradiation is a fundamental ingredient for following light-driven natural processes and for designing novel photonic materials. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the ab initio quantum chemical and time-dependent density functional theory methods that can be used to model spectroscopy and photochemistry in molecular systems. The applicability and limitations of the different methods as well as the main frontiers are discussed. To illustrate the progress achieved by excited-state chemistry in the recent years as well as the main challenges facing computational chemistry, three main applications that reflect the authors' experience are addressed: the UV/Vis spectroscopy of organic molecules, the assignment of absorption and emission bands of organometallic complexes, and finally, the obtainment of non-adiabatic photoinduced pathways mediated by conical intersections. In the latter case, special emphasis is put on the photochemistry of DNA. These applications show that the description of electronically excited states is a rewarding but challenging area of research.
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              Accurate Spin-State Energetics of Transition Metal Complexes. 1. CCSD(T), CASPT2, and DFT Study of [M(NCH)6](2+) (M = Fe, Co).

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Chem Sci
                Chem Sci
                Chemical Science
                Royal Society of Chemistry
                2041-6520
                2041-6539
                1 February 2017
                26 September 2016
                : 8
                : 2
                : 1482-1499
                Affiliations
                [a ] Institute of Theoretical Chemistry , Faculty of Chemistry , University of Vienna , Währinger Straße 17 , 1090 Vienna , Austria . Email: nogueira.perez.juanjose@ 123456univie.ac.at ; Email: leticia.gonzalez@ 123456univie.ac.at
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5112-794X
                Article
                c6sc03759c
                10.1039/c6sc03759c
                5452265
                28572908
                e6b24185-5a31-4b68-a38a-4700f990328f
                This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 22 August 2016
                : 23 September 2016
                Categories
                Chemistry

                Notes

                †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Original data (Table S1) and additional comments for the literature survey; note on symmetry (Table S2), geometries (Table S3), data (Tables S4–S6) and comments (Section S2) for calculations on di-/triatomic molecules; results (Tables S7–S25) and comments (Section S3) for calculations on the organic molecular data set. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc03759c


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