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      Microbiome and Graves’ Orbitopathy

      a , b , a , *

      European Thyroid Journal

      S. Karger AG

      Microbiome, Autoimmunity, Graves’ disease, Graves’ orbitopathy

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          Abstract

          Background: Studies from animal models of autoimmunity have highlighted the potential importance of microorganisms and their metabolic products in shaping the immune system. Summary: This review provides an introduction to the current state-of-the-art in microbiome research both from the perspective of “what is known” and of methodologies for its investigation. It then summarises the evidence for a role for the microbiome in the pathogenesis of Graves’ disease and Graves’ orbitopathy with reference to animal models and studies in human cohorts, from both published and ongoing sources. Key Message: Microbiome research is in its infancy but has already provided novel insights into disease pathogenesis across the spectrum from cancer to mental health and autoimmunity.

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          Most cited references 48

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          QIIME allows analysis of high-throughput community sequencing data.

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            DADA2: High resolution sample inference from Illumina amplicon data

            We present DADA2, a software package that models and corrects Illumina-sequenced amplicon errors. DADA2 infers sample sequences exactly, without coarse-graining into OTUs, and resolves differences of as little as one nucleotide. In several mock communities DADA2 identified more real variants and output fewer spurious sequences than other methods. We applied DADA2 to vaginal samples from a cohort of pregnant women, revealing a diversity of previously undetected Lactobacillus crispatus variants.
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              Introducing mothur: open-source, platform-independent, community-supported software for describing and comparing microbial communities.

              mothur aims to be a comprehensive software package that allows users to use a single piece of software to analyze community sequence data. It builds upon previous tools to provide a flexible and powerful software package for analyzing sequencing data. As a case study, we used mothur to trim, screen, and align sequences; calculate distances; assign sequences to operational taxonomic units; and describe the alpha and beta diversity of eight marine samples previously characterized by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. This analysis of more than 222,000 sequences was completed in less than 2 h with a laptop computer.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ETJ
                ETJ
                10.1159/issn.2235-0640
                European Thyroid Journal
                S. Karger AG
                2235-0640
                2235-0802
                2020
                December 2020
                05 November 2020
                : 9
                : Suppl 1
                : 78-86
                Affiliations
                aThyroid Research Group, Division of Infection and Immunity, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Cardiff, United Kingdom
                bComputational Metagenomics, CIBIO Department, University of Trento, Trento, Italy
                Author notes
                *Marian Ludgate, Thyroid Research Group, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Heath Park, Cardiff CF14 4XN (UK), ludgate@cardiff.ac.uk
                Article
                512255 Eur Thyroid J 2020;9(suppl 1):78–85
                10.1159/000512255
                © 2020 European Thyroid Association Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Research Article

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