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      Nutritional and Inflammatory Markers in the Prediction of Mortality in Chinese Hemodialysis Patients

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: The prevalence ofcardiovascular disease and mortality rate is relatively low in Chinese dialysis patients. This study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of nutritional and inflammatory markers in Chinese hemodialysis patients. Methods: A total of 158 patients (70 men and 88 women, age 59.9 ± 13.2 years) were studied. Nutritional and inflammatory markers, including subjective global assessment (SGA), insulin-like growth factor-1, albumin, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, serum amyloid A (SAA), and C-reactive protein (CRP), were measured. These patients were followed up until April 2004 (36 months) to determine the incidence and causes of death. Results: SGA (p = 0.001), IL-1β (p = 0.032), SAA (p = 0.031), IL-6 (p = 0.001) and CRP (p < 0.001) were found to be significant predictors of mortality. After adjusting with age, sex, diabetes, coronary artery disease, Kt/V<sub>urea</sub>, and duration on dialysis, CRP (odds ratio = 4.58; p = 0.038) and SGA (odds ratio = 6.57; p = 0.004) remained the independent predictors of mortality. The adjusted mortality rate was highest for patients with a high CRP level and malnutrition (assessed by SGA). Conclusions: SGA and CRP levels are the most significant predictors of mortality in Chinese dialysis patients. Chinese dialysis patients with a high CRP level tend to be at higher risk of mortality only if they are malnourished.

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          Most cited references 14

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          Strong association between malnutrition, inflammation, and atherosclerosis in chronic renal failure.

          Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and malnutrition are widely recognized as leading causes of the increased morbidity and mortality observed in uremic patients. C-reactive protein (CRP), an acute-phase protein, is a predictor of cardiovascular mortality in nonrenal patient populations. In chronic renal failure (CRF), the prevalence of an acute-phase response has been associated with an increased mortality. One hundred and nine predialysis patients (age 52 +/- 1 years) with terminal CRF (glomerular filtration rate 7 +/- 1 ml/min) were studied. By using noninvasive B-mode ultrasonography, the cross-sectional carotid intima-media area was calculated, and the presence or absence of carotid plaques was determined. Nutritional status was assessed by subjective global assessment (SGA), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), serum albumin, serum creatinine, serum urea, and 24-hour urine urea excretion. The presence of an inflammatory reaction was assessed by CRP, fibrinogen (N = 46), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha; N = 87). Lipid parameters, including Lp(a) and apo(a)-isoforms, as well as markers of oxidative stress (autoantibodies against oxidized low-density lipoprotein and vitamin E), were also determined. Compared with healthy controls, CRF patients had an increased mean carotid intima-media area (18.3 +/- 0.6 vs. 13.2 +/- 0.7 mm2, P or = 10 mg/liter). Malnourished patients had higher CRP levels (23 +/- 3 vs. 13 +/- 2 mg/liter, P < 0.01), elevated calculated intima-media area (20.2 +/- 0.8 vs. 16.9 +/- 0.7 mm2, P < 0.01) and a higher prevalence of carotid plaques (90 vs. 60%, P < 0.0001) compared with well-nourished patients. During stepwise multivariate analysis adjusting for age and gender, vitamin E (P < 0.05) and CRP (P < 0.05) remained associated with an increased intima-media area. The presence of carotid plaques was significantly associated with age (P < 0.001), log oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL; P < 0.01), and small apo(a) isoform size (P < 0.05) in a multivariate logistic regression model. These results indicate that the rapidly developing atherosclerosis in advanced CRF appears to be caused by a synergism of different mechanisms, such as malnutrition, inflammation, oxidative stress, and genetic components. Apart from classic risk factors, low vitamin E levels and elevated CRP levels are associated with an increased intima-media area, whereas small molecular weight apo(a) isoforms and increased levels of oxLDL are associated with the presence of carotid plaques.
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            The urea reduction ratio and serum albumin concentration as predictors of mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

            Among patients with end-stage renal disease who are treated with hemodialysis, solute clearance during dialysis and nutritional adequacy are determinants of mortality. We determined the effects of reductions in blood urea nitrogen concentrations during dialysis and changes in serum albumin concentrations, as an indicator of nutritional status, on mortality in a large group of patients treated with hemodialysis. We analyzed retrospectively the demographic characteristics, mortality rate, duration of hemodialysis, serum albumin concentration, and urea reduction ratio (defined as the percent reduction in blood urea nitrogen concentration during a single dialysis treatment) in 13,473 patients treated from October 1, 1990, through March 31, 1991. The risk of death was determined as a function of the urea reduction ratio and serum albumin concentration. As compared with patients with urea reduction ratios of 65 to 69 percent, patients with values below 60 percent had a higher risk of death during follow-up (odds ratio, 1.28 for urea reduction ratios of 55 to 59 percent and 1.39 for ratios below 55 percent). Fifty-five percent of the patients had urea reduction ratios below 60 percent. The duration of dialysis was not predictive of mortality. The serum albumin concentration was a more powerful (21 times greater) predictor of death than the urea reduction ratio, and 60 percent of the patients had serum albumin concentrations predictive of an increased risk of death (values below 4.0 g per deciliter). The odds ratio for death was 1.48 for serum albumin concentrations of 3.5 to 3.9 g per deciliter and 3.13 for concentrations of 3.0 to 3.4 g per deciliter. Diabetic patients had lower serum albumin concentrations and urea reduction ratios than nondiabetic patients. Low urea reduction ratios during dialysis are associated with increased odds ratios for death. These risks are worsened by inadequate nutrition.
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              Factors predicting malnutrition in hemodialysis patients: a cross-sectional study.

              Signs of protein-energy malnutrition are common in maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. To evaluate the nutritional status and relationship between various parameters used for assessing malnutrition, we performed a cross-sectional study in 128 unselected patients treated with hemodialysis (HD) thrice weekly for at least two weeks. Global nutritional status was evaluated by the subjective global nutritional assessment (SGNA). Body weight, skinfold thicknesses converted into % body fat mass (BFM), mid-arm muscle circumference, hand-grip strength and several laboratory values, including serum albumin (SA1b), plasma insulin-like growth factor I (p-IGF-I), serum C-reactive protein (SCRP) and plasma free amino acids, were recorded. Dose of dialysis and protein equivalence of nitrogen appearance (nPNA) were evaluated by urea kinetic modeling. The patients were subdivided into three groups based on SGNA: group I, normal nutritional status (36%); group II, mild malnutrition (51%); and group III, moderate or (in 2 cases) severe malnutrition (13%). Clinical factors associated with malnutrition were: high age, presence of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. nPNA and Kt/V(urea) were similar in the three groups. However, when normalized to desirable body wt, both were lower in groups II and III than in group I. Anthropometric factors associated with malnutrition were low body wt, skinfold thickness, mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), and handgrip strength. Biochemical factors associated with malnutrition were low serum levels of albumin and creatinine and low plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and branched-chain amino acids (isoleucine, leucine and valine). The serum albumin (SAlb) level was not only a predictor of nutritional status, but was independently influenced by age, sex and SCRP. Plasma IGF-1 levels also reflected the presence and severity of malnutrition and appeared to be more closely associated than SAlb with anthropometric and biochemical indices of somatic protein mass. Elevated SCRP (> 20 mg/liter), which mainly reflected the presence of infection/inflammation and was associated with hypoalbuminemia, was more common in malnourished patients than in patients with normal nutritional status, and also more common in elderly than in younger patients. Plasma amino acid levels, with the possible exception of the branched-chain amino acids (isoleucine, leucine, valine), seem to be poor predictors of nutritional status in hemodialysis patients.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEC
                Nephron Clin Pract
                10.1159/issn.1660-2110
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2110
                2005
                May 2005
                23 March 2005
                : 100
                : 1
                : c20-c26
                Affiliations
                Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Cathay General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
                Article
                84654 Nephron Clin Pract 2005;100:c20–c26
                10.1159/000084654
                15795516
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 4, References: 28, Pages: 1
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                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/84654
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