Background/Aims: The prevalence ofcardiovascular disease and mortality rate is relatively low in Chinese dialysis patients. This study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of nutritional and inflammatory markers in Chinese hemodialysis patients. Methods: A total of 158 patients (70 men and 88 women, age 59.9 ± 13.2 years) were studied. Nutritional and inflammatory markers, including subjective global assessment (SGA), insulin-like growth factor-1, albumin, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, serum amyloid A (SAA), and C-reactive protein (CRP), were measured. These patients were followed up until April 2004 (36 months) to determine the incidence and causes of death. Results: SGA (p = 0.001), IL-1β (p = 0.032), SAA (p = 0.031), IL-6 (p = 0.001) and CRP (p < 0.001) were found to be significant predictors of mortality. After adjusting with age, sex, diabetes, coronary artery disease, Kt/V<sub>urea</sub>, and duration on dialysis, CRP (odds ratio = 4.58; p = 0.038) and SGA (odds ratio = 6.57; p = 0.004) remained the independent predictors of mortality. The adjusted mortality rate was highest for patients with a high CRP level and malnutrition (assessed by SGA). Conclusions: SGA and CRP levels are the most significant predictors of mortality in Chinese dialysis patients. Chinese dialysis patients with a high CRP level tend to be at higher risk of mortality only if they are malnourished.