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      High-grain feeding causes strong shifts in ruminal epithelial bacterial community and expression of Toll-like receptor genes in goats


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          High-grain (HG) feeding used in intensive goat production can affect the physiology of the rumen wall, but the changes induced in the epimural bacterial community and host Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are not well understood. In this study, 10 male goats were randomly allocated to two groups and fed either a hay diet (0% grain; n = 5) or an HG diet (65% grain; n = 5). The changes in the ruminal epithelial bacterial community and expression of TLRs during long-term (7 weeks) HG feeding were determined using pyrosequencing and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Principal coordinate analysis and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) results showed that HG feeding caused a strong shift in bacterial composition and structure. At the genus level, our data revealed that it increased the relative abundance of taxa Butyrivibrio, unclassified Clostridiales, Mogibacterium, unclassified Anaerolineaceae, and Succiniclasticum, and decreased the proportion of unclassified Ruminococcaceae, unclassified Rikenellaceae, unclassified Erysipelotrichaceae, Howardella, and unclassified Neisseriaceae. The HG-fed goats also exhibited upregulation of the relative mRNA expression of TLR2, TLR3, and TLR5 in the rumen epithelium ( P < 0.05). Correlation analysis revealed that the increase in TLR expression was associated with changes in the relative abundance of ruminal epithelial bacteria. This study provides a first insight into the adaptive response of ruminal epithelial bacterial populations to HG feeding in goats and shows that these changes were associated with alterations in TLR expression. These findings provide new insight into understanding of host–microbial relationships in ruminants.

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          Factors that alter rumen microbial ecology.

          Ruminant animals and ruminal microorganisms have a symbiotic relationship that facilitates fiber digestion, but domestic ruminants in developed countries are often fed an abundance of grain and little fiber. When ruminants are fed fiber-deficient rations, physiological mechanisms of homeostasis are disrupted, ruminal pH declines, microbial ecology is altered, and the animal becomes more susceptible to metabolic disorders and, in some cases, infectious disease. Some disorders can be counteracted by feed additives (for example, antibiotics and buffers), but these additives can alter the composition of the ruminal ecosystem even further.
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            Microbial ecology of the rumen evaluated by 454 GS FLX pyrosequencing is affected by starch and oil supplementation of diets.

            To provide a comprehensive examination of the bacterial diversity in the rumen content of cows fed different diets, high-throughput 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing was used. Four rumen fistulated nonlactating Holstein cows received 12 kg of dry matter per day of four diets based on maize silage during four periods: the low-starch diet (22% starch, 3% fat); the high-starch diet, supplemented with wheat plus barley (35% starch, 3% fat); the low-starch plus oil diet, supplemented with 5% of sunflower oil (20% starch, 7.6% fat) and the high-starch plus oil diet (33% starch, 7.3% fat). Samples were taken after 12 days of adaptation, 5 h postfeeding. Whatever the diet, bacterial community of sieved rumen contents was dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Prevotellaceae, and Rikenellaceae families were highly present and were clearly affected by cow diet. The highest abundance of Prevotellaceae and the lowest abundance of Ruminococcaceae and Rikenellaceae were found with the high-starch plus oil diet. Dietary starch increased the relative abundance of only three genera: Barnesiella, Oribacterium and Olsenella, but decreased the relative abundances of several genera, with very significant effects for Rikenellaceae_RC9 and Butyrivibrio-Pseudobutyrivibrio. Oil alone had a limited effect, but interestingly, starch plus oil addition differently affected the bacterial populations compared to starch addition without oil. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA), endotoxins and health consequences


                Author and article information

                Front Microbiol
                Front Microbiol
                Front. Microbiol.
                Frontiers in Microbiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                02 March 2015
                : 6
                : 167
                Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, Laboratory of Gastrointestinal Microbiology, College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University Nanjing, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Lee Mark Wetzler, Boston University School of Medicine, USA

                Reviewed by: Xun Suo, China Agricultural University, China; Qendrim Zebeli, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Austria

                *Correspondence: Sheng-yong Mao, Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, Laboratory of Gastrointestinal Microbiology, College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Weigang No. 1, Nanjing 210095, China e-mail: maoshengyong@ 123456163.com

                This article was submitted to Microbial Immunology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Microbiology.

                Copyright © 2015 Liu, Bian, Zhu and Mao.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 01 December 2014
                : 12 February 2015
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 47, Pages: 10, Words: 8493
                Original Research Article

                Microbiology & Virology
                high-grain feeding,bacterial community,ruminal epithelium,toll-like receptors,goat


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