Hadi Zare-Zardini 1 , 2 , 3 , Ashraf Alemi 4 , Asghar Taheri-Kafrani 5 , Seyed Ahmad Hosseini 6 , Hossein Soltaninejad 7 , 8 , Amir Ali Hamidieh 9 , Mojtaba Haghi Karamallah 10 , Majid Farrokhifar 11 , Mohammad Farrokhifar 12
13 August 2020
Ginsenoside Rh2, purified from the Panax ginseng root, has been demonstrated to possess anticancer properties against various cancerous cells including colorectal, breast, skin, ovarian, prostate, and liver cancerous cells. However, the poor bioavailability, low stability on gastrointestinal systems, and fast plasma elimination limit further clinical applications of Ginsenoside Rh2 for cancer treatments. In this study, a novel formulation of niosomal Ginsenoside Rh2 was prepared using the thin film hydration technique.
The niosomal formulation contained Span 60 and cholesterol, and cationic lipid DOTAP was evaluated by determining particle size distribution, encapsulation efficiency, the polydispersity index (PDI), and surface morphology. The cytotoxic effects of free Ginsenoside Rh2 and Ginsenoside Rh2-loaded niosomes were determined using the MTT method in the PC3 prostate cancer cell line. For the investigation of the in vitro cellular uptake of Ginsenoside Rh2-loaded niosome, two formulations were prepared: the Ginsenoside Rh2-loaded niosomal formula containing 5% DOTAP and the Ginsenoside Rh2-loaded niosomal formula without DOTAP.
The mean size, DPI, zeta potential, and encapsulation efficiency of the Ginsenoside Rh2-loaded nanoniosomal formulation containing DOTAP were 93.5±2.1 nm, 0.203±0.01, +4.65±0.65, and 98.32% ±2.4, respectively. The niosomal vesicles were found to be round and have a smooth surface. The release profile of Ginsenoside Rh2 from niosome was biphasic. Furthermore, a two-fold reduction in the Ginsenoside Rh2 concentration was measured when Ginsenoside Rh2 was administered in a nanoniosomal form compared to free Ginsenoside Rh2 solutions in the PC3 prostate cancer cell line. After storage for 90 days, the encapsulation efficiency, vesicle size, PDI, and zeta potential of the optimized formulation did not significantly change compared to the freshly prepared samples. The cellular uptake experiments of the niosomal formulation demonstrated that by adding DOTAP to the niosomal formulation, the cellular uptake was enhanced.