Clinically inapparent adrenal masses are incidentally detected after imaging studies conducted for reasons other than the evaluation of the adrenal glands. They have frequently been referred to as adrenal incidentalomas. In preparation for a National Institutes of Health State-of-the-Science Conference on this topic, extensive literature research, including Medline, BIOSIS, and Embase between 1966 and July 2002, as well as references of published metaanalyses and selected review articles identified more than 5400 citations. Based on 699 articles that were retrieved for further examination, we provide a comprehensive update of the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches focusing on endocrine and radiological features as well as surgical options. In addition, we present recent developments in the discovery of tumor markers, endocrine testing for subclinical disease including autonomous glucocorticoid hypersecretion and silent pheochromocytoma, novel imaging techniques, and minimally invasive surgery. Based on the statements of the conference, the available literature, and ongoing studies, our aim is to provide practical recommendations for the management of this common entity and to highlight areas for future studies and research.