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      The Rise of Consumer Health Wearables: Promises and Barriers

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          Abstract

          Lukasz Piwek and colleagues consider whether wearable technology can become a valuable asset for health care.

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          Most cited references34

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          Delivering interventions for depression by using the internet: randomised controlled trial.

          To evaluate the efficacy of two internet interventions for community-dwelling individuals with symptoms of depression--a psychoeducation website offering information about depression and an interactive website offering cognitive behaviour therapy. Randomised controlled trial. Internet users in the community, in Canberra, Australia. 525 individuals with increased depressive symptoms recruited by survey and randomly allocated to a website offering information about depression (n = 166) or a cognitive behaviour therapy website (n = 182), or a control intervention using an attention placebo (n = 178). Change in depression, dysfunctional thoughts; knowledge of medical, psychological, and lifestyle treatments; and knowledge of cognitive behaviour therapy. Intention to treat analyses indicated that information about depression and interventions that used cognitive behaviour therapy and were delivered via the internet were more effective than a credible control intervention in reducing symptoms of depression in a community sample. For the intervention that delivered cognitive behaviour therapy the reduction in score on the depression scale of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies was 3.2 (95% confidence interval 0.9 to 5.4). For the "depression literacy" site (BluePages), the reduction was 3.0 (95% confidence interval 0.6 to 5.2). Cognitive behaviour therapy (MoodGYM) reduced dysfunctional thinking and increased knowledge of cognitive behaviour therapy. Depression literacy (BluePages) significantly improved participants' understanding of effective evidence based treatments for depression (P < 0.05). Both cognitive behaviour therapy and psychoeducation delivered via the internet are effective in reducing symptoms of depression.
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            Unique in the Crowd: The privacy bounds of human mobility

            We study fifteen months of human mobility data for one and a half million individuals and find that human mobility traces are highly unique. In fact, in a dataset where the location of an individual is specified hourly, and with a spatial resolution equal to that given by the carrier's antennas, four spatio-temporal points are enough to uniquely identify 95% of the individuals. We coarsen the data spatially and temporally to find a formula for the uniqueness of human mobility traces given their resolution and the available outside information. This formula shows that the uniqueness of mobility traces decays approximately as the 1/10 power of their resolution. Hence, even coarse datasets provide little anonymity. These findings represent fundamental constraints to an individual's privacy and have important implications for the design of frameworks and institutions dedicated to protect the privacy of individuals.
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              Emerging Patient-Driven Health Care Models: An Examination of Health Social Networks, Consumer Personalized Medicine and Quantified Self-Tracking

              A new class of patient-driven health care services is emerging to supplement and extend traditional health care delivery models and empower patient self-care. Patient-driven health care can be characterized as having an increased level of information flow, transparency, customization, collaboration and patient choice and responsibility-taking, as well as quantitative, predictive and preventive aspects. The potential exists to both improve traditional health care systems and expand the concept of health care though new services. This paper examines three categories of novel health services: health social networks, consumer personalized medicine and quantified self-tracking.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                PLoS Med
                PLoS Med
                plos
                plosmed
                PLoS Medicine
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1549-1277
                1549-1676
                2 February 2016
                February 2016
                : 13
                : 2
                : e1001953
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Management, University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdom
                [2 ]Department of Psychology, Lancaster University, Lancaster, United Kingdom
                [3 ]Division of Psychology, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom
                Author notes

                The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Wrote the first draft of the manuscript: LP DAE. Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: LP DAE SA AJ. Agree with the manuscript's results and conclusions: LP DAE SA AJ. All authors have read, and confirm that they meet, ICMJE criteria for authorship.

                Article
                PMEDICINE-D-15-00616
                10.1371/journal.pmed.1001953
                4737495
                26836780
                f1af2b2c-7d9d-4731-928a-770c4754afee
                © 2016 Piwek et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 0, Pages: 9
                Funding
                No funding bodies had any role in study design, data collection and analysis, and decision to publish. A Research Investment Grant (RIF2014–31) from The University of Lincoln supported the preparation of this manuscript.
                Categories
                Essay
                Engineering and Technology
                Equipment
                Communication Equipment
                Cell Phones
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Biotechnology
                Medical Devices and Equipment
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Medical Devices and Equipment
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Behavior
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Public and Occupational Health
                Behavioral and Social Aspects of Health
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Health Care
                Patients
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Cardiology
                Heart Rate
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Health Care
                Health Services Research

                Medicine
                Medicine

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