Alix Barbe 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , Namya Mellouk 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , Christelle Ramé 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , Jérémy Grandhaye 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , Christophe Staub 5 , Eric Venturi 5 , Marine Cirot 5 , Angélique Petit 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , Karine Anger 6 , Marine Chahnamian 6 , Patrice Ganier 6 , Olivier Callut 6 , Estelle Cailleau-Audouin 7 , Sonia Metayer-Coustard 7 , Antonella Riva 8 , Pascal Froment 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , Joëlle Dupont 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , *
13 April 2020
In reproductive hens, a feed restriction is an usual practice to improve metabolic and reproductive disorders. However, it acts a stressor on the animal. In mammals, grape seed extracts (GSE) reduces oxidative stress. However, their effect on endocrine and tissue response need to be deepened in reproductive hens. Here, we evaluated the effects of time and level of GSE dietary supplementation on growth performance, viability, oxidative stress and metabolic parameters in plasma and metabolic tissues in reproductive hens and their offsprings. We designed an in vivo trial using 4 groups of feed restricted hens: A (control), B and C (supplemented with 0.5% and 1% of the total diet composition in GSE since week 4, respectively) and D (supplemented with 1% of GSE since the hatch). In hens from hatch to week 40, GSE supplementation did not affect food intake and fattening whatever the time and dose of supplementation. Body weight was significantly reduced in D group as compared to control. In all hen groups, GSE supplementation decreased plasma oxidative stress index associated to a decrease in the mRNA expression of the NOX4 and 5 oxidant genes in liver and muscle and an increase in SOD mRNA expression. This was also associated to decreased plasma chemerin and increased plasma adiponectin and visfatin levels. Interestingly, maternal GSE supplementation increased the live body weight and viability of chicks at hatching and 10 days of age. This was associated to a decrease in plasma and liver oxidative stress parameters. Taken together, GSE maternal dietary supplementation reduces plasma and tissue oxidative stress associated to modulation of adipokines without affecting fattening in reproductive hens. A 1% GSE maternal dietary supplementation increased offspring viability and reduced oxidative stress suggesting a beneficial transgenerational effect and a potential use to improve the quality of the progeny in reproductive hens.