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Assessment of periodontal health status in postmenopausal women visiting dental hospital from in and around Meerut city: Cross-sectional observational study

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      Abstract

      Background:Puberty, menses, pregnancy, and menopause are the different phases of a woman's life which have a varied influence on oral health. During the menopause, women go through biological and endocrine changes, particularly in their sex steroid hormone production which affects their health. Because the oral mucosa contains estrogen receptors, variations in hormone levels can be seen directly in the oral cavity leading to a few oral conditions and diseases seen more frequently during postmenopausal years.Objective:The objective of this study is to assess periodontal health status in postmenopausal women in and around Meerut city.Materials and Methods:The study sample comprised ninety postmenopausal women. History of menopause was recorded, and the dental examinations were done by measuring the following parameters of periodontal health: plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), pocket probing depth, and Russell's periodontal index. The collected data were subjected to statistical analyses.Results and Conclusion:In the study group, mean age was 55 years, mean missing teeth were 10.3, mean duration of menopause was 9.23. Eleven percent females were completely edentulous, and 5 females had never brushed. Mean PI-s was 1.99, mean GI-s was 1.74, mean BOP was 52.85, and mean Russell's periodontal index was 4.34. Eleven patients were at the initial stages of destructive periodontal disease, 34 had established destructive periodontal disease while thirty patients had the terminal periodontal disease. These findings suggest that females after menopause are at a risk of developing destructive periodontal disease if proper oral hygiene practices are not followed.

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      Most cited references 12

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      The clinical value of salivary biomarkers for periodontal disease.

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        Risk Factors of Periodontal Disease: Review of the Literature

        Objectives. This paper aims to review the evidence on the potential roles of modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors associated with periodontal disease. Data. Original articles that reported on the risk factors for periodontal disease were included. Sources. MEDLINE (1980 to Jan 2014), PubMed (using medical subject headings), and Google Scholar were searched using the following terms in different combinations: “periodontal disease,” “periodontitis,” “risk factors,” and “causal.” This was supplemented by hand-searching in peer-reviewed journals and cross-referenced with the articles accessed. Conclusions. It is important to understand the etiological factors and the pathogenesis of periodontal disease to recognize and appreciate the associated risk factors. As periodontal disease is multifactorial, effective disease management requires a clear understanding of all the associated risk factors.
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          The physiology, medical management and oral implications of menopause.

           A Friedlander (2001)
          Approximately 36 million women in the United States are in the postmenopausal phase of life. The vast majority of these women experienced spontaneous cessation of menses between the ages of 47 and 55 years when the production of estrogen decreased because of an inadequate number of functioning follicles within their ovaries. Fewer women entered menopause after surgical removal of both ovaries. This procedure usually is performed prophylactically to prevent ovarian cancer in conjunction with a hysterectomy, which is required to treat abnormal bleeding, endometriosis or pelvic inflammatory disease. The physiological changes associated with spontaneous or surgical menopause cause some women to experience uncomfortable symptoms such as hot flashes, night sweats and vaginal dryness. In addition, estrogen deprivation arising from menopause in association with age-related factors disproportionately increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (that is, myocardial infarct, stroke), osteoporosis, Alzheimer's disease and oral disease. Hormone replacement therapy, or HRT (estrogen or estrogen and progestin), often is prescribed on a short-term basis to alleviate the uncomfortable symptoms associated with estrogen deficiency and on a long-term basis to prevent some of the chronic illnesses common to postmenopausal women. Dentists who treat women entering menopause need to consider the stressful phase of life their patients are experiencing. Clinical findings of postmenopausal problems on dental examination may include a paucity of saliva, increased dental caries, dysesthesia, taste alterations, atrophic gingivitis, periodontitis and osteoporotic jaws unsuitable for conventional prosthetic devices or dental implants. Panoramic dental radiographs may reveal calcified carotid artery atheromas. Dentists have an opportunity to refer women who are not under the care of a gynecologist for an evaluation to determine the appropriateness of HRT for its systemic and oral health benefits.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Department of Periodontology, Subharti Dental College and Hospital, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India
            Author notes
            Address for Correspondence: Prof. D. Deepa, Department of Periodontology, Subharti Dental College and Hospital, Meerut - 250 005, Uttar Pradesh, India. E-mail: deepa_arun@ 123456rediffmail.com
            Journal
            J Midlife Health
            J Midlife Health
            JMH
            Journal of Mid-Life Health
            Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
            0976-7800
            0976-7819
            Oct-Dec 2016
            : 7
            : 4
            : 175-179
            5192987
            JMH-7-175
            10.4103/0976-7800.195696
            Copyright: © 2016 Journal of Mid-life Health

            This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

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