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      C-Reactive Protein as a Marker of Chronic Inflammation in Uremic Patients

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          Abstract

          Cardiovascular complications caused by an accelerated atherosclerotic disease represent the largest single cause of mortality in chronic renal failure patients. The rapidly developing atherosclerosis of the uremic syndrome appears to be caused by a synergism of different mechanisms, such as malnutrition, oxidative stress and genetic factors. Recent studies provide evidence that chronic inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Elevated serum levels of plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with an increased risk of experiencing myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death in apparently healthy subjects. Several recently published papers have confirmed this strong association between CRP and the extent and severity of the atherosclerotic processes. In patients affected by predialytic renal failure, increased levels of CRP and interleukin (IL)-6 were recorded in 25% of our population; CRP and IL-6 were inversely related with renal function. These data suggest the activation – even in the predialytic phase of renal failure – of mechanisms known to contribute to the enhanced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality of the uremic syndrome. In recent years we have investigated the hypothesis that the chronic inflammatory state of the uremic patient could at least in part be due to the dialytic technique. We provide evidence suggesting that the increase of CRP in stable dialytic patients may be due to the stimulation of monocyte/macrophage by backfiltration of dialysate contaminants.

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          Association of morbidity with markers of nutrition and inflammation in chronic hemodialysis patients: a prospective study.

          Numerous studies suggest a strong association between nutrition and clinical outcome in chronic hemodialysis (CHD) patients. Nevertheless, the pathophysiological link between malnutrition and morbidity remains to be clarified. In addition, recent evidence suggests that nutritional indices may reflect an inflammatory response, as well as protein-calorie malnutrition. In this study, we prospectively assessed the relative importance of markers of nutritional status and inflammatory response as determinants of hospitalization in CHD patients. The study consisted of serial measurements of concentrations of serum albumin, creatinine, transferrin, prealbumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and reactance values by bio-electrical impedance analysis (BIA) as an indirect measure of lean body mass every 3 months over a period of 15 months in 73 CHD patients. Outcome was determined by hospitalizations over the subsequent three months following each collection of data. Patients who required hospitalization in the three months following each of the measurement sets had significantly different values for all parameters than patients who were not hospitalized. Thus, serum albumin (3.93 +/- 0.39 vs. 3.74 +/- 0.39 g/dl), serum creatinine (11.0 +/- 3.7 vs. 9.1 +/- 3.5 mg/dl), serum transferrin (181 +/- 35 vs. 170 +/- 34 mg/dl), serum prealbumin (33.6 +/- 9.2 vs. 30.0 +/- 10.1 mg/dl), and reactance (50.4 +/- 15.6 vs. 43.0 +/- 13.0 ohms) were higher for patients not hospitalized, whereas CRP (0.78 +/- 0.89 vs. 2.25 +/- 2.72 mg/dl) was lower in patients who were not hospitalized. All differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05 for all parameters). When multivariate analysis was performed, serum CRP and reactance values were the only statistically significant predictors of hospitalization (P < 0.05 for both). When a serum CRP concentration of 0.12 mg/dl was considered as a reference range (relative risk 1.0), the relative risk for hospitalization was 7% higher (relative risk = 1.07) for a CRP concentration of 0.92 mg/dl and was 30% (relative risk = 1.30) higher for a CRP concentration of 3.4 mg/dl. When a reactance value of 70 ohms was considered as a reference range with a relative risk of 1.0, the relative risk of hospitalization increased to 1.09 for a reactance value of 43 ohms and further increased to 1.14 for a reactance value of 31 ohms. The results of this study strongly indicate that both nutritional status and inflammatory response are independent predictors of hospitalization in CHD patients. CRP and reactance values by BIA are reliable indicators of hospitalization. Visceral proteins such as serum albumin, prealbumin, and transferrin are influenced by inflammation when predicting hospitalization. When short-term clinical outcomes such as hospitalizations are considered, markers of both inflammation and nutrition should be evaluated.
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            Inflammation, atherosclerosis, and ischemic events -- exploring the hidden side of the moon.

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              Plasma C-Reactive Protein in Hemodialysis Patients: A Cross-Sectional, Longitudinal Clinical Survey 1

              In hemodialysis patients, C-reactive protein (CRP), an acute-phase reactant, is a sensitive and independent marker of malnutrition, anemia, and amyloidosis. The aim of the present studies was to evaluate CRP and interleukin 6 levels in plasma samples from long-term hemodialysis patients on different extracorporeal modalities associated with or without backfiltration. Two hundred and forty-seven patients were recruited in eight hospital-based centers. All patients had been on their dialytic modality for at least 6 months. At enrollment, 46 hemodialysis patients out of 247 (18.6%) had clinical evidence of pathologies known to be associated with high CRP values. The 201 remaining patients were defined as clinically stable and were on conventional hemodialysis (34%), hemodiafiltration with infusion volumes 20 liters/session, in hemodialysis and in double-chamber hemodiafiltration. The same pattern occurred after 6 months of follow-up in 171 out of 201 clinically stable patients. Hemodialytic conditions that expose to the risk of backfiltration such as low exchange volume hemodiafiltration may induce a chronic inflammatory state as reflected by increased plasma values of both CRP and interleukin 6, thus suggesting the need for hemodialytic strategies that reduce (hemodialysis with low-permeability membranes or hemodiafiltration with infusion volumes >20 liters) or eliminate (double-chamber hemodiafiltration) backfiltration of bacteria-derived contaminants.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-7083-1
                978-3-318-00584-4
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2000
                2000
                03 August 2000
                : 18
                : 3
                : 183-190
                Affiliations
                Departments of aInternal Medicine and bNeuroscience (Pharmacology Section), University of Pisa and cClinical and Laboratory Research Department, Bellco SpA, Mirandola, Italy
                Article
                14417 Blood Purif 2000;18:183–190
                10.1159/000014417
                10859421
                © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, References: 36, Pages: 8
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/14417
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