Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between dietary patterns and the 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the elderly population in Korea. Methods: Cluster analysis was conducted on the data of 1687 elderly participants (797 men and 890 women) aged ≥65 years from the 2014–2016 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), using a 24-h dietary recall survey to assess dietary patterns. Dietary patterns were classified into clusters 1 (typical Korean diet), 2 (high carbohydrate diet), and 3 (healthy diet). The 10-year risk of CVD was calculated based on age, total and HDL-cholesterol levels, systolic blood pressure level, antihypertensive medication use, smoking status, and presence of diabetes. A complex sample general linear model was applied to determine the association between dietary patterns and the 10-year risk of CVD. Results: In total, 275 (33.7%), 141 (17.9%), and 381 (48.3%) men, and 207 (22.6%), 276 (30.9%), and 407(46.6%) women were included in clusters 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The 10-year risk of CVD was lower in men in cluster 3 (healthy diet) than in those in cluster 1 (typical Korean diet) (t = 2.092, p = 0.037). Additionally, the 10-year risk of CVD was lower in men who performed strength training than in those who did not (t = 3.575, p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in women. Conclusions: After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, men who consumed a healthy diet had a lower 10-year risk of CVD than those who consumed a typical Korean diet. When organizing nutrition education programs to improve dietary habits in the elderly, content on diets that consist of various food groups to prevent CVD is required. In particular, it is necessary to develop content that emphasizes the importance of healthy eating habits in men.