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      Relationship between Dietary Patterns and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Korean Older Adults

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          Abstract

          Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between dietary patterns and the 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the elderly population in Korea. Methods: Cluster analysis was conducted on the data of 1687 elderly participants (797 men and 890 women) aged ≥65 years from the 2014–2016 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), using a 24-h dietary recall survey to assess dietary patterns. Dietary patterns were classified into clusters 1 (typical Korean diet), 2 (high carbohydrate diet), and 3 (healthy diet). The 10-year risk of CVD was calculated based on age, total and HDL-cholesterol levels, systolic blood pressure level, antihypertensive medication use, smoking status, and presence of diabetes. A complex sample general linear model was applied to determine the association between dietary patterns and the 10-year risk of CVD. Results: In total, 275 (33.7%), 141 (17.9%), and 381 (48.3%) men, and 207 (22.6%), 276 (30.9%), and 407(46.6%) women were included in clusters 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The 10-year risk of CVD was lower in men in cluster 3 (healthy diet) than in those in cluster 1 (typical Korean diet) (t = 2.092, p = 0.037). Additionally, the 10-year risk of CVD was lower in men who performed strength training than in those who did not (t = 3.575, p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in women. Conclusions: After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, men who consumed a healthy diet had a lower 10-year risk of CVD than those who consumed a typical Korean diet. When organizing nutrition education programs to improve dietary habits in the elderly, content on diets that consist of various food groups to prevent CVD is required. In particular, it is necessary to develop content that emphasizes the importance of healthy eating habits in men.

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          Most cited references 42

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          General cardiovascular risk profile for use in primary care: the Framingham Heart Study.

          Separate multivariable risk algorithms are commonly used to assess risk of specific atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, ie, coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, and heart failure. The present report presents a single multivariable risk function that predicts risk of developing all CVD and of its constituents. We used Cox proportional-hazards regression to evaluate the risk of developing a first CVD event in 8491 Framingham study participants (mean age, 49 years; 4522 women) who attended a routine examination between 30 and 74 years of age and were free of CVD. Sex-specific multivariable risk functions ("general CVD" algorithms) were derived that incorporated age, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, treatment for hypertension, smoking, and diabetes status. We assessed the performance of the general CVD algorithms for predicting individual CVD events (coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease, or heart failure). Over 12 years of follow-up, 1174 participants (456 women) developed a first CVD event. All traditional risk factors evaluated predicted CVD risk (multivariable-adjusted P<0.0001). The general CVD algorithm demonstrated good discrimination (C statistic, 0.763 [men] and 0.793 [women]) and calibration. Simple adjustments to the general CVD risk algorithms allowed estimation of the risks of each CVD component. Two simple risk scores are presented, 1 based on all traditional risk factors and the other based on non-laboratory-based predictors. A sex-specific multivariable risk factor algorithm can be conveniently used to assess general CVD risk and risk of individual CVD events (coronary, cerebrovascular, and peripheral arterial disease and heart failure). The estimated absolute CVD event rates can be used to quantify risk and to guide preventive care.
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            Interventions to promote physical activity and dietary lifestyle changes for cardiovascular risk factor reduction in adults: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

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              Diet Quality as Assessed by the Healthy Eating Index, Alternate Healthy Eating Index, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Score, and Health Outcomes: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                ijerph
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                MDPI
                1661-7827
                1660-4601
                01 April 2021
                April 2021
                : 18
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Preventive Medicine and Institute of Health Science, Gyeongsang National University College of Medicine, Jinju 52727, Korea; sarim2101@ 123456naver.com
                [2 ]Department of Public Health, Yeungnam University Graduate School, Gyeongsan 38541, Korea
                [3 ]Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Deagu 42415, Korea
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: luke@ 123456ynu.ac.kr ; Tel.: +82-53-640-6954
                Article
                ijerph-18-03703
                10.3390/ijerph18073703
                8038041
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Public health

                aged, risk, heart disease, diet

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