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      Validation of Grading Scale for Evaluating Symptoms of Idiopathic Normal-Pressure Hydrocephalus

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: We developed an idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus grading scale (iNPHGS) to classify a triad of disorders (cognitive impairment, gait disturbance and urinary disturbance) of iNPH with a wide range of severity. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of this scale in 38 patients with iNPH. Results: The interrater reliability of this scale was high. The iNPHGS cognitive domain score significantly correlated with the cognitive test scores, including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the gait domain score with the Up and Go Test and Gait Status Scale scores, and the urinary domain score with the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF) score. The MMSE, Gait Status Scale and ICIQ-SF scores significantly improved in patients whose iNPHGS scores improved after CSF tapping but not in those whose iNPHGS scores did not improve after CSF tapping. Fourteen of the 38 patients received shunt operations. In these 14 patients, changes in the iNPHGS cognitive and urinary domains after CSF tapping were significantly associated with the changes after the shunt operation.

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          VALIDITY OF THE TRAIL MAKING TEST AS AN INDICATOR OF ORGANIC BRAIN DAMAGE

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            Specific patterns of cognitive impairment in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer's disease: a pilot study.

            Eleven patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) were selected from an initial cohort of 43 patients. The patients with NPH fell into two distinctive subgroups: preshunt, group 1 (n=5) scored less than 24 on the mini mental state examination (MMSE) and were classified as demented and group 2 (n=6) scored 24 or above on the MMSE and were classified as non-demented. All patients were neuropsychologically assessed on two occasions: preshunt and then again 6 months postshunt. Group 1 completed the mini mental state examination (MMSE) and the Kendrick object learning test (KOLT). In addition to the MMSE and KOLT, group 2 completed further tasks including verbal fluency and memory and attentional tasks from the CANTAB battery. Nine of the 11 patients also underwent postshunt MRI. Group 1, who, preshunt, performed in the dementing range on both the MMSE and KOLT, showed a significant postoperative recovery, with all patients now scoring within the normal non-demented range. Group 2, although showing no signs of dementia according to the MMSE and KOLT either preshunt or postshunt, did show a specific pattern of impairment on tests sensitive to frontostriatal dysfunction compared with healthy volunteers, and this pattern remained postoperatively. Importantly, this pattern is distinct from that exhibited by patients with mild Alzheimer's disease. Eight of the nine patterns of structural damage corresponded well to cognitive performance. These findings are useful for three main reasons: (1) they detail the structural and functional profile of impairment seen in NPH, (2) they demonstrate the heterogeneity found in this population and show how severity of initial cognitive impairment can affect outcome postshunt, and (3) they may inform and provide a means of monitoring the cognitive outcome of new procedures in shunt surgery.
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              Gait analysis in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus--which parameters respond to the CSF tap test?

              Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is an often underestimated cause of hypokinetic gait disorders in the elderly. Diagnosing NPH is a complex problem, since many symptoms overlap with other neurological diseases. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the gait pattern in NPH quantitatively. Additionally, we analyzed the improvement of gait parameters following tapping of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Gait analysis was performed in 10 patients and 12 age-matched healthy controls during overground and treadmill locomotion. Compared to healthy controls, patients with NPH walked significantly slower, with shorter and more variable strides and a somewhat lower cadence. The feet were not lifted to a normal height and the dorsal extension of the forefoot prior to heel-strike was insufficient. Balance-related gait parameters such as step width and the foot rotation angles were significantly increased in NPH, while their variability was lower. Only some gait parameters improved after tapping 30 ml CSF. Gait velocity increased by about 23% due to an increased stride length, while the cadence remained unchanged. Balance-related gait parameters and the foot-to-floor clearance during swing were not affected by the treatment. In conclusion, we found a triad of decreased stride length, decreased foot-to-floor clearance and a broad-based gait to be the typical features of the gait abnormality in NPH. Only the stride length improved following a diagnostic spinal tap. These results may help to more reliably diagnose the condition of NPH in a routine clinical setting.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                DEM
                Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord
                10.1159/issn.1420-8008
                Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
                S. Karger AG
                1420-8008
                1421-9824
                2008
                December 2007
                20 November 2007
                : 25
                : 1
                : 37-45
                Affiliations
                aPsychiatry and Behavioral Science, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, bDepartment of Neurology and Psychosomatic Medicine, NTT West Osaka Hospital, Osaka, cNishinomiya Kyoritsu Neurosurgical Hospital, Nishinomiya, and dDepartment of Neurosurgery, Kitano Hospital, Osaka, Japan
                Article
                111149 Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2008;25:37–45
                10.1159/000111149
                18025828
                fa9e2b25-591b-4bad-8dd0-04e35d83f2a9
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                History
                : 08 September 2007
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 5, References: 35, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Original Research Article

                Geriatric medicine,Neurology,Cardiovascular Medicine,Neurosciences,Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry,Public health
                Urinary disturbance,Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus,Dementia,CSF tap test,Cognitive impairment,Gait disturbance,Rating scale, validity

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