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      Pipeline Embolization Device for Intracranial Aneurysm: A Systematic Review

      , M.B.B.S., M.S., , M.B.B.S., , M.B.B.S.

      Clinical Neuroradiology

      Springer-Verlag

      Cerebral aneurysm, Endovascular treatment, Flow diverter, Pipeline embolization device

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          Abstract

          Introduction

          The pipeline embolization device (PED) is a new endovascular stent designed for the treatment of challenging intracranial aneurysms (IAs). Its use has been extended to nonruptured and ruptured IAs of a variety of configurations and etiologies in both the anterior and posterior circulations.

          Methods

          We conducted a systematic review of ten eligible reports on its clinical efficacy and safety.

          Results

          There were 414 patients with 448 IAs. The majority of the IAs were large (40.2 %), saccular or blister-like (78.3 %), and were located mostly in the anterior circulation (83.5 %). The regimens of antiplatelet therapy varied greatly between and within studies. The mean number of the PED used was 2.0 per IA. Deployment was successful in around 95 % of procedures. Aneurysm obliteration was achieved in 82.9 % of IAs at 6-month. The overall incidences of periprocedural intracranial vascular complication rate and mortality rate were 6.3 and 1.5 %, respectively.

          Conclusion

          The PED is a safe and effective treatment for nonruptured IAs. Its use in the context of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) should be cautioned. Its main limitations include the need for prolonged antiplatelet therapy, as well as the potential risks of IA rupture and non-IA-related intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH). Future studies should aim at identifying factors that predispose to incomplete obliteration, delayed rupture, and thromboembolic complications.

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          Most cited references 44

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          The pipeline embolization device for the intracranial treatment of aneurysms trial.

          Endoluminal reconstruction with flow diverting devices represents a novel constructive technique for the treatment of cerebral aneurysms. We present the results of the first prospective multicenter trial of a flow-diverting construct for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Patients with unruptured aneurysms that were wide-necked (> 4 mm), had unfavorable dome/neck ratios (<1.5), or had failed previous therapy were enrolled in the PITA trial between January and May 2007 at 4 (3 European and 1 South American) centers. Aneurysms were treated with the PED with or without adjunctive coil embolization. All patients underwent clinical evaluation at 30 and 180 days and conventional angiography 180 days after treatment. Angiographic results were adjudicated by an experienced neuroradiologist at a nonparticipating site. Thirty-one patients with 31 intracranial aneurysms (6 men; 42-76 years of age; average age, 54.6 years) were treated during the study period. Twenty-eight aneurysms arose from the ICA (5 cavernous, 15 parophthalmic, 4 superior hypophyseal, and 4 posterior communicating segments), 1 from the MCA, 1 from the vertebral artery, and 1 from the vertebrobasilar junction. Mean aneurysm size was 11.5 mm, and mean neck size was 5.8 mm. Twelve (38.7%) aneurysms had failed (or recurred after) a previous endovascular treatment. PED placement was technically successful in 30 of 31 patients (96.8%). Most aneurysms were treated with either 1 (n = 18) or 2 (n = 11) PEDs. Fifteen aneurysms (48.4%) were treated with a PED alone, while 16 were treated with both PED and embolization coils. Two patients experienced major periprocedural stroke. Follow-up angiography demonstrated complete aneurysm occlusion in 28 (93.3%) of the 30 patients who underwent angiographic follow-up. No significant in-construct stenosis (≥ 50%) was identified at follow-up angiography. Intracranial aneurysm treatment with the PED is technically feasible and can be achieved with a safety profile analogous to that reported for stent-supported coil embolization. PED treatment elicited a very high rate (93%) of complete angiographic occlusion at 6 months in a population of the most challenging anatomic subtypes of cerebral aneurysms.
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            Curative endovascular reconstruction of cerebral aneurysms with the pipeline embolization device: the Buenos Aires experience.

            The Pipeline embolization device (PED) (Chestnut Medical Technologies, Inc., Menlo Park, CA) is a new microcatheter-delivered endovascular construct designed to achieve the curative reconstruction of the parent arteries giving rise to wide-necked and fusiform intracranial aneurysms. We present our initial periprocedural experience with the PED and midterm follow-up results for a series of 53 patients. Patients harboring large and giant wide-necked, nonsaccular, and recurrent intracranial aneurysms were selected for treatment. All patients were pretreated with dual antiplatelet medications for at least 72 hours before surgery and continued taking both agents for at least 6 months after treatment. A control digital subtraction angiogram was typically performed at 3, 6, and 12 months. Fifty-three patients (age range, 11-77 years; average age, 55.2 years; 48 female) with 63 intracranial aneurysms were treated with the PED. Small (n = 33), large (n = 22), and giant (n = 8) wide-necked aneurysms were included. A total of 72 PEDs were used. Treatment was achieved with a single PED in 44 aneurysms, with 2 overlapping PEDs in 17 aneurysms, and with 3 overlapping PEDs in 2 aneurysms. The mean time between the treatment and last follow-up digital subtraction angiogram was 5.9 months (range, 1-22 months). Complete angiographic occlusion was achieved in 56%, 93%, and 95% of aneurysms at 3 (n = 42), 6 (n = 28), and 12 (n = 18) months, respectively. The only aneurysm that remained patent at the time of the 12-month follow-up examination had been treated previously with stent-supported coiling. The presence of a preexisting endoluminal stent may have limited the efficacy of the PED reconstruction in this aneurysm. No aneurysms demonstrated a deterioration of angiographic occlusion during the follow-up period (i.e., no recanalizations). No major complications (stroke or death) were encountered during the study period. Three patients (5%), all with giant aneurysms, experienced transient exacerbations of preexisting cranial neuropathies and headache after the PED treatment. All 3 were treated with corticosteroids, and these symptoms resolved within 1 month. Endovascular reconstruction with the PED represents a safe, durable, and curative treatment of selected wide-necked, large and giant cerebral aneurysms. The rate of complete occlusion at the time of the 12-month follow-up examination approached 100% in the present study. To date, no angiographic recurrences have been observed during serial angiographic follow-up.
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              Treatment of intracranial aneurysms by functional reconstruction of the parent artery: the Budapest experience with the pipeline embolization device.

              Aneurysm treatment by intrasaccular packing has been associated with a relatively high rate of recurrence. The use of mesh tubes has recently gained traction as an alternative therapy. This article summarizes the midterm results of using an endoluminal sleeve, the PED, in the treatment of aneurysms. A total of 19 wide-neck aneurysms were treated in 18 patients: 10 by implantation of PEDs alone and 9 by a combination of PED and coils. Angiographic and clinical results were recorded immediately and at 6 months following treatment. Immediate angiographic occlusion was achieved in 4 and flow reduction, in another 15 aneurysms. Angiography at 6 months demonstrated complete occlusion in 17 and partial filling in 1 of 18 patients. There was no difference between coil-packed and unpacked aneurysms. Of 28 side branches covered by > or =1 device, the ophthalmic artery was absent immediately in 1 and at 6 months in another 2 cases. One patient experienced abrupt in-stent thrombosis resulting in a transient neurologic deficit, and 1 patient died due to rupture of a coexisting aneurysm. All giant aneurysms treated with PED alone were demonstrated by follow-up cross-sectional imaging to have involuted by 6 months. Treatment of large, wide-neck, or otherwise untreatable aneurysms with functional reconstruction of the parent artery may be achieved with relative safety using dedicated flow-modifying devices with or without adjunctive use of intrasaccular coil packing.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                gilberto@hkucc.hku.hk
                Journal
                Clin Neuroradiol
                Clin Neuroradiol
                Clinical Neuroradiology
                Springer-Verlag (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                1869-1439
                1869-1447
                3 November 2012
                3 November 2012
                December 2012
                : 22
                : 4
                : 295-303
                Affiliations
                Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, 102 Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, China
                Article
                178
                10.1007/s00062-012-0178-6
                3505532
                23124329
                © The Author(s) 2012
                Categories
                Review Article
                Custom metadata
                © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

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