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      SOGS-RA gambling scores and substance use in adolescents

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          Background and aims

          There is a well-established association between pathological gambling and substance use disorders in adolescents. The aim of this study was to shed light on the association between adolescents’ different levels of involvement in gambling activities and substance use (smoking tobacco and cannabis and drinking alcoholic beverages), based on a large sample.


          A survey was conducted in 2013 on 34,746 students attending 619 secondary schools, who formed a representative sample of the Italian 15- to 19-year-old population. The prevalence of different categories of gamblers was estimated by age group and gender. A multiple correspondence analysis (CA) was conducted to explain the multivariate associations between substance use and gambling.


          The prevalence of problem gambling was 2.7% among the 15- to 17-year-olds, and rose to 3.6% among the 18- and 19-year-olds. Multiple CA revealed that, even when it does not reach risk-related or problem levels, gambling is associated with the use of alcohol and tobacco. In particular, the analysis showed that non-problem gambling levels were associated with alcohol and tobacco use at least once in the previous month, and that higher-risk gambling levels related to the use of cannabis and episodes of drunkenness at least once in the previous month.


          This study found that any gambling behavior, even below risk-related or problem levels, was associated with some degree of substance use by youths, and that adolescents’ levels of gambling lay along a continuum of the categories of substance use.

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          Most cited references 49

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          Theory and applications of correspondence analysis

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            Internet gambling: issues, concerns, and recommendations.

            The influence of technology in the field of gambling innovation continues to grow at a rapid pace. After a brief overview of gambling technologies and deregulation issues, this review examines the impact of technology on gambling by highlighting salient factors in the rise of Internet gambling (i.e., accessibility, affordability, anonymity, convenience, escape immersion/dissociation, disinhibition, event frequency, asociability, interactivity, and simulation). The paper also examines other factors in relation to Internet gambling including the relationship between Internet addiction and Internet gambling addiction. The paper ends by overviewing some of the social issues surrounding Internet gambling (i.e., protection of the vulnerable, Internet gambling in the workplace, electronic cash, and unscrupulous operators). Recommendations for Internet gambling operators are also provided.
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              Estimating the prevalence of adolescent gambling disorders: A quantitative synthesis and guide toward standard gambling nomenclature.

               H Shaffer,  M N Hall (1996)
              This article reviews the extant published and unpublished studies that estimate the prevalence of adolescent gambling problems in North America. The nine nonduplicative studies identified by our literature search included data collected from more than 7700 adolescents from five different regions of the United States and Canada. In addition to comparing the conceptual and methodological differences that exist among these studies, this article employed a meta-analytic strategy to synthesize prevalence estimates from the existing studies. This analysis revealed that within a 95 percent confidence interval, between 9.9% and 14.2% of adolescents are at risk of developing or returning to serious gambling problems. Similarly, between 4.4% and 7.4% of adolescents exhibit seriously adverse compulsive or pathological patterns of gambling activity. Finally, the discussion proposes a generic multi-level classification scheme to reconcile the divergent classification methods and data reporting strategies. This new multi-level approach to reporting gambling prevalence will facilitate interstudy comparisons among existing estimates of gambling prevalence and help to provide a general data reporting system for future research.

                Author and article information

                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                J Behav Addict
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                07 August 2017
                September 2017
                : 6
                : 3
                : 425-433
                [ 1 ] Department of Cardiological, Thoracic and Vascular Sciences, University of Padova , Padova, Italy
                [ 2 ] Department of Surgery, Oncology and Gastroenterology, University of Padova , Padova, Italy
                [ 3 ] EXPLORA – Research and Statistical Analysis , Vigodarzere (PD), Italy
                [ 4 ] Technical Scientific and General Affairs Section, Department for Drug Prevention Policies, Prime Minister’s Office , Rome, Italy
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Alessandra Buja; Department of Cardiological, Thoracic and Vascular Sciences, University of Padova, Via Loredan 18, 35127 Padova, Italy; Phone: +39 049 827 5387; Fax: +39 049 827 5392; E-mail: alessandra.buja@
                © 2017 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 42, Pages: 9
                Funding sources: This study was sponsored and financed by the Presidency of the Council of Ministers, realized from EXPLORA Center Associate of the University Consortium of Industrial and Managerial Economics (CUEIM), custodial institution for the survey year.
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