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      Bridging gaps in the molecular phylogeny of the Lymnaeidae (Gastropoda: Pulmonata), vectors of Fascioliasis

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          Abstract

          Background

          Lymnaeidae snails play a prominent role in the transmission of helminths, mainly trematodes of medical and veterinary importance ( e.g., Fasciola liver flukes). As this family exhibits a great diversity in shell morphology but extremely homogeneous anatomical traits, the systematics of Lymnaeidae has long been controversial. Using the most complete dataset to date, we examined phylogenetic relationships among 50 taxa of this family using a supermatrix approach (concatenation of the 16 S, ITS-1 and ITS-2 genes, representing 5054 base pairs) involving both Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference.

          Results

          Our phylogenetic analysis demonstrates the existence of three deep clades of Lymnaeidae representing the main geographic origin of species (America, Eurasia and the Indo-Pacific region). This phylogeny allowed us to discuss on potential biological invasions and map important characters, such as, the susceptibility to infection by Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica, and the haploid number of chromosomes (n). We found that intermediate hosts of F. gigantica cluster within one deep clade, while intermediate hosts of F. hepatica are widely spread across the phylogeny. In addition, chromosome number seems to have evolved from n = 18 to n = 17 and n = 16.

          Conclusion

          Our study contributes to deepen our understanding of Lymnaeidae phylogeny by both sampling at worldwide scale and combining information from various genes (supermatrix approach). This phylogeny provides insights into the evolutionary relationships among genera and species and demonstrates that the nomenclature of most genera in the Lymnaeidae does not reflect evolutionary relationships. This study highlights the importance of performing basic studies in systematics to guide epidemiological control programs.

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          Most cited references 44

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          MRBAYES: Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees.

          The program MRBAYES performs Bayesian inference of phylogeny using a variant of Markov chain Monte Carlo. MRBAYES, including the source code, documentation, sample data files, and an executable, is available at http://brahms.biology.rochester.edu/software.html.
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            PATRISTIC: a program for calculating patristic distances and graphically comparing the components of genetic change

            Background Phylogenies are commonly used to analyse the differences between genes, genomes and species. Patristic distances calculated from tree branch lengths describe the amount of genetic change represented by a tree and are commonly compared with other measures of mutation to investigate the substitutional processes or the goodness of fit of a tree to the raw data. Up until now no universal tool has been available for calculating patristic distances and correlating them with other genetic distance measures. Results PATRISTICv1.0 is a java program that calculates patristic distances from large trees in a range of file formats and allows graphical and statistical interpretation of distance matrices calculated by other programs. Conclusion The software overcomes some logistic barriers to analysing signals in sequences. In additional to calculating patristic distances, it provides plots for any combination of matrices, calculates commonly used statistics, allows data such as isolation dates to be entered and reorders matrices with matching species or gene labels. It will be used to analyse rates of mutation and substitutional saturation and the evolution of viruses. It is available at and requires the Java runtime environment.
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              Global diversity of gastropods (Gastropoda; Mollusca) in freshwater

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BMC Evol Biol
                BMC Evolutionary Biology
                BioMed Central
                1471-2148
                2010
                9 December 2010
                : 10
                : 381
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Laboratoire Génétique et Evolution des Maladies Infectieuses, UMR 2724 CNRS-IRD, IRD 911 avenue Agropolis, BP64501, 34394 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
                [2 ]Institut des Sciences de l'Evolution UMR 5554, Université Montpellier II, Place Eugène Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
                [3 ]Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive UMR 5175, 1919 Route de Mende, Campus CNRS, 34293 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
                [4 ]USR 3278 CNRS-EPHE, CRIOBE Université de Perpignan, 68860 Perpignan-Cedex, France
                [5 ]Département de Biologie-Ecologie (Faculté des Sciences) cc- 046- Université Montpellier 2, 4 Place Eugène Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
                Article
                1471-2148-10-381
                10.1186/1471-2148-10-381
                3013105
                21143890
                ff3d35f9-1ece-4021-8cf8-ee8019125aff
                Copyright ©2010 Correa et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (<url>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0</url>), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

                Evolutionary Biology

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