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      Anti-tumor promoting potential of selected spice ingredients with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities: a short review.

      Food and Chemical Toxicology
      Animals, Anti-Inflammatory Agents, pharmacology, Anticarcinogenic Agents, Antimutagenic Agents, Antioxidants, Capsaicin, Catechols, Cell Transformation, Neoplastic, drug effects, Curcumin, Cyclooxygenase 2, Fatty Alcohols, Humans, Isoenzymes, metabolism, Membrane Proteins, Mutagens, NF-kappa B, antagonists & inhibitors, Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases, Spices, analysis

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          A wide variety of phenolic substances derived from spice possess potent antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activities. Examples are curcumin, a yellow colouring agent, contained in turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae), [6]-gingerol, a pungent ingredient present in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae) and capsaicin, a principal pungent principle of hot chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L, Solanaceae). The chemopreventive effects exerted by these phytochemicals are often associated with their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. Cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been recognized as a molecular target of many chemopreventive as well as anti-inflammatory agents. Recent studies have shown that COX-2 is regulated by the eukaryotic transcription factor NF-kappaB. This short review summarizes the molecular mechanisms underlying chemopreventive effects of the aforementioned spice ingredients in terms of their effects on intracellular signaling cascades, particularly those involving NF-kappaB and mitogen-activated protein kinases.

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