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      Secreted amyloid beta-protein similar to that in the senile plaques of Alzheimer's disease is increased in vivo by the presenilin 1 and 2 and APP mutations linked to familial Alzheimer's disease.

      Nature medicine
      Alzheimer Disease, blood, genetics, Amyloid beta-Peptides, secretion, Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor, Cells, Cultured, Culture Media, Conditioned, Female, Fibroblasts, Humans, Male, Membrane Proteins, Mutation, Peptide Fragments, Presenilin-1, Presenilin-2

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          Abstract

          To determine whether the presenilin 1 (PS1), presenilin 2 (PS2) and amyloid beta-protein precursor (APP) mutations linked to familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) increase the extracellular concentration of amyloid beta-protein (A beta) ending at A beta 42(43) in vivo, we performed a blinded comparison of plasma A beta levels in carriers of these mutations and controls. A beta 1-42(43) was elevated in plasma from subjects with FAD-linked PS1 (P < 0.0001), PS2N1411 (P = 0.009), APPK670N,M671L (P < 0.0001), and APPV7171 (one subject) mutations. A beta ending at A beta 42(43) was also significantly elevated in fibroblast media from subjects with PS1 (P < 0.0001) or PS2 (P = 0.03) mutations. These findings indicate that the FAD-linked mutations may all cause Alzhelmer's disease by increasing the extracellular concentration of A beta 42(43), thereby fostering cerebral deposition of this highly amyloidogenic peptide.

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