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      Recent synchronous radiation of a living fossil.

      Science (New York, N.Y.)

      Bayes Theorem, Biological Evolution, Climate Change, Cycadophyta, anatomy & histology, classification, genetics, Extinction, Biological, Fossils, Genes, Plant, Genetic Speciation, Molecular Sequence Data, Phylogeny

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          Abstract

          Modern survivors of previously more diverse lineages are regarded as living fossils, particularly when characterized by morphological stasis. Cycads are often cited as a classic example, reaching their greatest diversity during the Jurassic-Cretaceous (199.6 to 65.5 million years ago) then dwindling to their present diversity of ~300 species as flowering plants rose to dominance. Using fossil-calibrated molecular phylogenies, we show that cycads underwent a near synchronous global rediversification beginning in the late Miocene, followed by a slowdown toward the Recent. Although the cycad lineage is ancient, our timetrees indicate that living cycad species are not much older than ~12 million years. These data reject the hypothesized role of dinosaurs in generating extant diversity and the designation of today's cycad species as living fossils.

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          Journal
          22021670
          10.1126/science.1209926

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