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      The proangiogenic action of thyroid hormone analogue GC-1 is initiated at an integrin.

      Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology

      Acetates, pharmacology, Animals, Cell Membrane, drug effects, Chick Embryo, Chorion, blood supply, Fibroblast Growth Factor 2, physiology, Indicators and Reagents, Integrin alphaVbeta3, antagonists & inhibitors, Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases, metabolism, Neovascularization, Physiologic, Phenols, Regional Blood Flow, Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta, Thyroxine, analogs & derivatives

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          Our early reported investigations have demonstrated potent proangiogenic effects of L-thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) in the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model. Tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac) blocks T4 binding to plasma membranes and its pro-angiogenic effect. T4/T3 stimulates expression of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) in endothelial cells. Thyroid hormone (T4/T3) is principally responsible for transcriptional activation mediated by nuclear thyroid hormone receptors TRbeta and TRalpha. In contrast, the hormone analogue GC-1 also stimulates transcriptional activation via TRbeta1. In the present study, we have defined the effect of GC-1, compared with T4 and T4-agarose, on angiogenesis in the CAM assay. GC-1 demonstrated a proangiogenic effect similar to that of T4 and T4-agarose. Tetrac inhibited GC-1- and T4-induced angiogenesis, indicating dependence on T4 and GC-1 binding to plasma membranes. The effects of GC-1, T4-agarose, and FGF2 were blocked by PD 98059, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway inhibitor. Additionally, the alphavbeta3 integrin antagonist XT199 inhibited angiogenesis induced by T4-agarose, GC-1, or FGF2. Thus, the proangiogenic effects of GC-1 and T4 are initiated at the plasma membrane, require interaction with alphavbeta3 integrin receptor, and are dependent on MAPK activation.

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