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      Migrant Parents and the Psychological Well-Being of Left-Behind Children in Southeast Asia

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          Abstract

          Several million children currently live in transnational families, yet little is known about impacts on their health. We investigated the psychological well-being of left-behind children in four Southeast Asian countries. Data were drawn from the CHAMPSEA study. Caregiver reports from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) were used to examine differences among children under age 12 by the migration status of their household ( N = 3,876). We found no general pattern across the four study countries: Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. Multivariate models showed that children of migrant fathers in Indonesia and Thailand are more likely to have poor psychological well-being, compared to children in nonmigrant households. This finding was not replicated for the Philippines or Vietnam. The paper concludes by arguing for more contextualized understandings.

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          Most cited references77

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          Predicting type of psychiatric disorder from Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) scores in child mental health clinics in London and Dhaka.

          A computerised algorithm was developed to predict child psychiatric diagnoses on the basis of the symptom and impact scores derived from Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires (SDQs) completed by parents, teachers and young people. The predictive algorithm generates "unlikely", "possible" or "probable" ratings for four broad categories of disorder, namely conduct disorders, emotional disorders, hyperactivity disorders, and any psychiatric disorder. The algorithm was applied to patients attending child mental health clinics in Britain (N = 101) and Bangladesh (N = 89). The level of chance-corrected agreement between SDQ prediction and an independent clinical diagnosis was substantial and highly significant (Kendall's tau b between 0.49 and 0.73; p < 0.001). A "probable" SDQ prediction for any given disorder correctly identified 81-91% of the children who definitely had that clinical diagnosis. There were more false positives than false negatives, i.e. the SDQ categories were over-inclusive. The algorithm appears to be sufficiently accurate and robust to be of practical value in planning the assessment of new referrals to a child mental health service.
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            The nature of the child's tie to his mother.

            L J Bowlby (2015)
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              Scale properties of the Japanese version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ): a study of infant and school children in community samples.

              The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a short screening instrument which addresses the positive and negative behavioral attributes of infants, children and adolescents. The SDQ is widely used to evaluate child developmental disabilities, psychological and psychiatric conditions or disorders in Japan. However, we did not have normative data for the Japanese version until now. To establish the community-based data and properties for the Japanese version, we collected and evaluated parent ratings of a total of 2899 Japanese children aged 4-12 years, including 1463 boys and 1436 girls. Statistical evaluation of psychometric properties included a factor analysis verifying the proposed scale structure, an assessment of scale homogeneities, and the determination of age, gender and relationship of each difficulties scale, or prosocial scale. The total difficulties score in boys (8.70 +/- 5.03) was higher than in girls (7.86 +/- 4.88). Based on the distributions of SDQ scores observed in the Japanese community sample, recommended bandings identifying normal, borderline, and abnormal (clinical ranges) were defined for each scale, and some gender difference was found in some difficulties and prosocial SDQ scores. After evaluating parent ratings obtained in a community-based sample, the Japanese SDQ was shown to possess favorable psychometric properties. Thus, the Japanese translation of this popular and versatile instrument seems to be approximately as reliable and useful as the original English questionnaire.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Marriage Fam
                jomf
                Journal of Marriage and the Family
                Blackwell Publishing Ltd
                0022-2445
                1741-3737
                August 2011
                : 73
                : 4
                : 763-787
                Affiliations
                simpleUniversity of St. Andrews
                simpleUniversity of Southampton
                Author notes
                School of Geography and Geosciences, Irvine Building, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9AL, UK ( efg@ 123456st-andrews.ac.uk ).
                [*]

                School of Social Sciences, International Centre for Child Well-Being, University of Southampton, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ, UK.

                This paper was edited by Valentina Mazzucato.

                Re-use of this article is permitted in accordance with the Terms and Conditions set out at http://wileyonlinelibrary.com/onlineopen#OnlineOpen_Terms

                Article
                10.1111/j.1741-3737.2011.00844.x
                3229683
                22163371
                07372663-daf1-4c3b-9441-c969f3b2fb61
                Copyright © National Council on Family Relations, 2011

                Re-use of this article is permitted in accordance with the Creative Commons Deed, Attribution 2.5, which does not permit commercial exploitation.

                History
                Categories
                Special Section on Transnational Families

                Family & Child studies
                childhood/children,mental health/well-being,cross-national,asian/pacific islander families,immigration/migrant families

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