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      ANNOVAR: functional annotation of genetic variants from high-throughput sequencing data

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      1 , * , 2 , 1 , 3
      Nucleic Acids Research
      Oxford University Press

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          Abstract

          High-throughput sequencing platforms are generating massive amounts of genetic variation data for diverse genomes, but it remains a challenge to pinpoint a small subset of functionally important variants. To fill these unmet needs, we developed the ANNOVAR tool to annotate single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and insertions/deletions, such as examining their functional consequence on genes, inferring cytogenetic bands, reporting functional importance scores, finding variants in conserved regions, or identifying variants reported in the 1000 Genomes Project and dbSNP. ANNOVAR can utilize annotation databases from the UCSC Genome Browser or any annotation data set conforming to Generic Feature Format version 3 (GFF3). We also illustrate a ‘variants reduction’ protocol on 4.7 million SNVs and indels from a human genome, including two causal mutations for Miller syndrome, a rare recessive disease. Through a stepwise procedure, we excluded variants that are unlikely to be causal, and identified 20 candidate genes including the causal gene. Using a desktop computer, ANNOVAR requires ∼4 min to perform gene-based annotation and ∼15 min to perform variants reduction on 4.7 million variants, making it practical to handle hundreds of human genomes in a day. ANNOVAR is freely available at http://www.openbioinformatics.org/annovar/ .

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          Most cited references15

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          Human non-synonymous SNPs: server and survey.

          Human single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) represent the most frequent type of human population DNA variation. One of the main goals of SNP research is to understand the genetics of the human phenotype variation and especially the genetic basis of human complex diseases. Non-synonymous coding SNPs (nsSNPs) comprise a group of SNPs that, together with SNPs in regulatory regions, are believed to have the highest impact on phenotype. Here we present a World Wide Web server to predict the effect of an nsSNP on protein structure and function. The prediction method enabled analysis of the publicly available SNP database HGVbase, which gave rise to a dataset of nsSNPs with predicted functionality. The dataset was further used to compare the effect of various structural and functional characteristics of amino acid substitutions responsible for phenotypic display of nsSNPs. We also studied the dependence of selective pressure on the structural and functional properties of proteins. We found that in our dataset the selection pressure against deleterious SNPs depends on the molecular function of the protein, although it is insensitive to several other protein features considered. The strongest selective pressure was detected for proteins involved in transcription regulation.
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            The UCSC Genome Browser database: update 2010

            The University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC) Genome Browser website (http://genome.ucsc.edu/) provides a large database of publicly available sequence and annotation data along with an integrated tool set for examining and comparing the genomes of organisms, aligning sequence to genomes, and displaying and sharing users’ own annotation data. As of September 2009, genomic sequence and a basic set of annotation ‘tracks’ are provided for 47 organisms, including 14 mammals, 10 non-mammal vertebrates, 3 invertebrate deuterostomes, 13 insects, 6 worms and a yeast. New data highlights this year include an updated human genome browser, a 44-species multiple sequence alignment track, improved variation and phenotype tracks and 16 new genome-wide ENCODE tracks. New features include drag-and-zoom navigation, a Wiki track for user-added annotations, new custom track formats for large datasets (bigBed and bigWig), a new multiple alignment output tool, links to variation and protein structure tools, in silico PCR utility enhancements, and improved track configuration tools.
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              The UCSC Known Genes.

              The University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC) Known Genes dataset is constructed by a fully automated process, based on protein data from Swiss-Prot/TrEMBL (UniProt) and the associated mRNA data from Genbank. The detailed steps of this process are described. Extensive cross-references from this dataset to other genomic and proteomic data were constructed. For each known gene, a details page is provided containing rich information about the gene, together with extensive links to other relevant genomic, proteomic and pathway data. As of July 2005, the UCSC Known Genes are available for human, mouse and rat genomes. The Known Genes serves as a foundation to support several key programs: the Genome Browser, Proteome Browser, Gene Sorter and Table Browser offered at the UCSC website. All the associated data files and program source code are also available. They can be accessed at http://genome.ucsc.edu. The genomic coverage of UCSC Known Genes, RefSeq, Ensembl Genes, H-Invitational and CCDS is analyzed. Although UCSC Known Genes offers the highest genomic and CDS coverage among major human and mouse gene sets, more detailed analysis suggests all of them could be further improved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nucleic Acids Res
                nar
                nar
                Nucleic Acids Research
                Oxford University Press
                0305-1048
                1362-4962
                September 2010
                September 2010
                3 July 2010
                3 July 2010
                : 38
                : 16
                : e164
                Affiliations
                1Center for Applied Genomics, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, 2Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology and 3Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
                Author notes
                *To whom correspondence should be addressed. Tel: +1 215 426 1256; Fax: +1 267 426 0363; Email: kai@ 123456openbioinformatics.org
                Article
                gkq603
                10.1093/nar/gkq603
                2938201
                20601685
                09f9faae-c55e-483d-b0fe-d0cd8e6cfbd8
                © The Author(s) 2010. Published by Oxford University Press.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.5), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 27 March 2010
                : 2 June 2010
                : 18 June 2010
                Categories
                Methods Online

                Genetics
                Genetics

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