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      Sub-Daily Natural CO2 Flux Simulation Based on Satellite Data: Diurnal and Seasonal Pattern Comparisons to Anthropogenic CO2 Emissions in the Greater Tokyo Area

      , , , , , ,
      Remote Sensing
      MDPI AG

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          Abstract

          During the last decade, advances in the remote sensing of greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations by the Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite-1 (GOSAT-1), GOSAT-2, and Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) have produced finer-resolution atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) datasets. These data are applicable for a top-down approach towards the verification of anthropogenic CO2 emissions from megacities and updating of the inventory. However, great uncertainties regarding natural CO2 flux estimates remain when back-casting CO2 emissions from concentration data, making accurate disaggregation of urban CO2 sources difficult. For this study, we used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land products, meso-scale meteorological data, SoilGrids250 m soil profile data, and sub-daily soil moisture datasets to calculate hourly photosynthetic CO2 uptake and biogenic CO2 emissions with 500 m resolution for the Kantō Plain, Japan, at the center of which is the Tokyo metropolis. Our hourly integrated modeling results obtained for the period 2010–2018 suggest that, collectively, the vegetated land within the Greater Tokyo Area served as a daytime carbon sink year-round, where the hourly integrated net atmospheric CO2 removal was up to 14.15 ± 4.24% of hourly integrated anthropogenic emissions in winter and up to 55.42 ± 10.39% in summer. At night, plants and soil in the Greater Tokyo Area were natural carbon sources, with hourly integrated biogenic CO2 emissions equivalent to 2.27 ± 0.11%–4.97 ± 1.17% of the anthropogenic emissions in winter and 13.71 ± 2.44%–23.62 ± 3.13% in summer. Between January and July, the hourly integrated biogenic CO2 emissions of the Greater Tokyo Area increased sixfold, whereas the amplitude of the midday hourly integrated photosynthetic CO2 uptake was enhanced by nearly five times and could offset up to 79.04 ± 12.31% of the hourly integrated anthropogenic CO2 emissions in summer. The gridded hourly photosynthetic CO2 uptake and biogenic respiration estimates not only provide reference data for the estimation of total natural CO2 removal in our study area, but also supply prior input values for the disaggregation of anthropogenic CO2 emissions and biogenic CO2 fluxes when applying top-down approaches to update the megacity’s CO2 emissions inventory. The latter contribution allows unprecedented amounts of GOSAT and ground measurement data regarding CO2 concentration to be analyzed in inverse modeling of anthropogenic CO2 emissions from Tokyo and the Kantō Plain.

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          Various aspects of the biochemistry of photosynthetic carbon assimilation in C3 plants are integrated into a form compatible with studies of gas exchange in leaves. These aspects include the kinetic properties of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase; the requirements of the photosynthetic carbon reduction and photorespiratory carbon oxidation cycles for reduced pyridine nucleotides; the dependence of electron transport on photon flux and the presence of a temperature dependent upper limit to electron transport. The measurements of gas exchange with which the model outputs may be compared include those of the temperature and partial pressure of CO2(p(CO2)) dependencies of quantum yield, the variation of compensation point with temperature and partial pressure of O2(p(O2)), the dependence of net CO2 assimilation rate on p(CO2) and irradiance, and the influence of p(CO2) and irradiance on the temperature dependence of assimilation rate.
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              SoilGrids250m: Global gridded soil information based on machine learning

              This paper describes the technical development and accuracy assessment of the most recent and improved version of the SoilGrids system at 250m resolution (June 2016 update). SoilGrids provides global predictions for standard numeric soil properties (organic carbon, bulk density, Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), pH, soil texture fractions and coarse fragments) at seven standard depths (0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 100 and 200 cm), in addition to predictions of depth to bedrock and distribution of soil classes based on the World Reference Base (WRB) and USDA classification systems (ca. 280 raster layers in total). Predictions were based on ca. 150,000 soil profiles used for training and a stack of 158 remote sensing-based soil covariates (primarily derived from MODIS land products, SRTM DEM derivatives, climatic images and global landform and lithology maps), which were used to fit an ensemble of machine learning methods—random forest and gradient boosting and/or multinomial logistic regression—as implemented in the R packages ranger, xgboost, nnet and caret. The results of 10–fold cross-validation show that the ensemble models explain between 56% (coarse fragments) and 83% (pH) of variation with an overall average of 61%. Improvements in the relative accuracy considering the amount of variation explained, in comparison to the previous version of SoilGrids at 1 km spatial resolution, range from 60 to 230%. Improvements can be attributed to: (1) the use of machine learning instead of linear regression, (2) to considerable investments in preparing finer resolution covariate layers and (3) to insertion of additional soil profiles. Further development of SoilGrids could include refinement of methods to incorporate input uncertainties and derivation of posterior probability distributions (per pixel), and further automation of spatial modeling so that soil maps can be generated for potentially hundreds of soil variables. Another area of future research is the development of methods for multiscale merging of SoilGrids predictions with local and/or national gridded soil products (e.g. up to 50 m spatial resolution) so that increasingly more accurate, complete and consistent global soil information can be produced. SoilGrids are available under the Open Data Base License.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                Remote Sensing
                Remote Sensing
                MDPI AG
                2072-4292
                June 2021
                May 21 2021
                : 13
                : 11
                : 2037
                Article
                10.3390/rs13112037
                0a266113-2f7f-4999-85de-318ca50c69c5
                © 2021

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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