Blog
About

4
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Vaccination Coverage by Age 24 Months Among Children Born in 2015 and 2016 — National Immunization Survey-Child, United States, 2016–2018

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that children be vaccinated against 14 potentially serious illnesses during the first 24 months of life ( 1 ). CDC used data from the National Immunization Survey-Child (NIS-Child) to assess vaccination coverage with the recommended number of doses of each vaccine at the national, state, territorial, and selected local levels* among children born in 2015 and 2016. Coverage by age 24 months was at least 90% nationally for ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine, ≥1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR), ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB), and ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine, although MMR coverage was <90% in 20 states. Children were least likely to be up to date by age 24 months with ≥2 doses of influenza vaccine (56.6%). Only 1.3% of children born in 2015 and 2016 had received no vaccinations by the second birthday. Coverage was lower for uninsured children and for children insured by Medicaid than for those with private health insurance. Vaccination coverage can be increased by improving access to vaccine providers and eliminating missed opportunities to vaccinate children during health care visits. Increased use of local vaccination coverage data is needed to identify communities at higher risk for outbreaks of measles and other vaccine-preventable diseases. The NIS-Child is a random-digit–dialed telephone survey † of parents or guardians of children aged 19–35 months. Respondents are asked to provide contact information for all providers who administered vaccines to their children. With parental consent, a survey is mailed to each identified provider, requesting the child’s vaccination history. Multiple responses for an individual child are synthesized into a comprehensive vaccination history which is used to estimate vaccination coverage. To estimate coverage for the 25,059 children with adequate provider data § born in 2015 and 2016, NIS-Child data from 2016–2018 were combined; for survey year 2018, the Council of American Survey Research Organizations’ response rate was 24.6%, and 54.0% of children with household interviews had adequate provider data. ¶ With this report, CDC has transitioned to reporting NIS-Child data by birth year rather than survey year. Vaccination coverage by age 24 months was estimated using Kaplan-Meier (time to event) analysis to account for children who were aged <24 months on the date vaccination status was assessed. Coverage with ≥2 doses of hepatitis A vaccine (HepA) was assessed at 35 months (the maximum age included in the survey), because the second dose of HepA can be administered as late as age 41 months under the current schedule. Previous NIS-Child weighting methods were modified to optimize estimation by birth year and to reflect the shift from a dual landline and cellular telephone sample frame to an exclusively cellular telephone sampling frame in 2018.** Differences in coverage estimates were evaluated using t-tests on weighted data; p-values of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Analyses were performed using SAS (version 9.4; SAS institute) and SUDAAN (version 11.0.1; Research Triangle Institute). No evidence for a change in survey accuracy from the 2017 to 2018 survey year was detected (https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/imz-managers/coverage/childvaxview/pubs-presentations/NIS-child-vac-coverage-estimates-2014-2018-tables.html#supp-table-01) ( 2 ). National Vaccination Coverage Coverage by age 24 months was ≥90% for ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine (92.7%), ≥1 dose of MMR (90.4%), ≥3 doses of HepB (91.0%), and ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine (90.0%) (Table 1). Compared with estimates for children born in 2013 and 2014, coverage for children born during 2015–2016 increased for the HepB birth dose (3.2 percentage points), ≥1 dose of HepA (1.5 percentage points), and ≥2 doses of influenza vaccine (3.6 percentage points). Coverage with ≥2 HepA doses by age 35 months increased from 74.0% for children born during 2013–2014 to 76.6% for children born during 2015–2016. Children were least likely to be up to date by age 24 months with ≥2 doses of influenza vaccine (56.6%) and the combined 7-vaccine series †† (68.5%). TABLE 1 Estimated vaccination coverage by age 24 months* among children born during 2013–2016 for selected vaccines and doses — National Immunization Survey-Child, United States, 2014–2018 Vaccine/Dose % (95% CI) Birth years† Difference (2013–2014) to (2015–2016) 2013–2014 2015–2016 DTaP§ ≥3 doses 93.6 (93.0 to 94.2) 93.8 (93.1 to 94.5) 0.2 (−0.7 to 1.1) ≥4 doses 80.6 (79.7 to 81.6) 80.3 (79.0 to 81.5) −0.4 (−1.9 to 1.2) Poliovirus (≥3 doses) 91.7 (91.0 to 92.4) 92.7 (92.0 to 93.4) 1.0 (0.0 to 2.0) MMR (≥1 dose)¶ 90.0 (89.3 to 90.7) 90.4 (89.5 to 91.2) 0.3 (−0.8 to 1.5) Hib** Primary series 92.7 (92.1 to 93.3) 92.7 (91.8 to 93.5) 0.0 (−1.1 to 1.0) Full series 80.2 (79.3 to 81.1) 79.6 (78.3 to 80.9) −0.6 (−2.1 to 1.0) HepB Birth dose†† 71.8 (70.7 to 72.8) 75.0 (73.7 to 76.2) 3.2 (1.6 to 4.9)§§ ≥3 doses 90.9 (90.2 to 91.6) 91.0 (90.2 to 91.9) 0.1 (−1.0 to 1.2) Varicella (≥1 dose)¶ 89.3 (88.6 to 90.1) 90.0 (89.1 to 90.9) 0.7 (−0.5 to 1.8) PCV ≥3 doses 91.9 (91.2 to 92.5) 92.0 (91.1 to 92.8) 0.1 (−1.0 to 1.2) ≥4 doses 81.5 (80.6 to 82.4) 81.0 (79.8 to 82.3) −0.4 (−2.0 to 1.1) HepA ≥1 dose 83.2 (82.4 to 84.1) 84.7 (83.6 to 85.8) 1.5 (0.1 to 2.9)§§ ≥2 doses (by 35 months) 74.0 (72.8 to 75.3) 76.6 (74.7 to 78.4) 2.6 (0.4 to 4.8)§§ Rotavirus (by 8 months)¶¶ 72.4 (71.3 to 73.4) 73.6 (72.2 to 74.9) 1.2 (−0.5 to 2.9) Influenza (≥2 doses)*** 53.0 (51.9 to 54.1) 56.6 (55.2 to 58.0) 3.6 (1.8 to 5.4)§§ Combined 7-vaccine series††† 68.4 (67.3 to 69.5) 68.5 (67.1 to 69.9) 0.1 (−1.7 to 1.9) No vaccinations 1.1 (1.0 to 1.3) 1.3 (1.1 to 1.5) 0.1 (−0.2 to 0.4) Abbreviations: CI = confidence interval; DTaP = diphtheria, tetanus toxoids, and acellular pertussis vaccine; HepA = hepatitis A vaccine; HepB = hepatitis B vaccine; Hib = Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine; MMR = measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine; PCV = pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. * Includes vaccinations received by age 24 months (before the day the child turns 24 months), except for the HepB birth dose, rotavirus vaccination, and ≥2 HepA doses by 35 months. For all vaccines, except the HepB birth dose and rotavirus vaccination, the Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate vaccination coverage to account for children whose vaccination history was ascertained before age 24 months (35 months for ≥2 HepA doses). † Data for the 2013 birth year are from survey years 2014, 2015, and 2016; data for the 2014 birth year are from survey years 2015, 2016, and 2017; data for the 2015 birth year are from survey years 2016, 2017, and 2018; data for the 2016 birth year are considered preliminary and come from survey years 2017 and 2018 (data from survey year 2019 are not yet available). § Includes children who might have received diphtheria and tetanus toxoids vaccine or diphtheria, tetanus toxoids, and pertussis vaccine. ¶ Includes children who might have received measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella combination vaccine. ** Hib primary series: receipt of ≥2 or ≥3 doses, depending on product type received; full series: primary series and booster dose, which includes receipt of ≥3 or ≥4 doses, depending on product type received. †† One dose HepB administered from birth through age 3 days. §§ Statistically significantly different from 0 at p<0.05. ¶¶ Includes ≥2 doses of Rotarix monovalent rotavirus vaccine, or ≥3 doses of RotaTeq pentavalent rotavirus vaccine. The maximum age for the final rotavirus dose is 8 months, 0 days. *** Doses must be at least 24 days apart (4 weeks with a 4-day grace period). ††† The combined 7-vaccine series (4:3:1:3*:3:1:4) includes ≥4 doses of DTaP, ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine, ≥1 dose of measles-containing vaccine, the full series of Hib (≥3 or ≥4 doses, depending on product type), ≥3 doses of HepB, ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine, and ≥4 doses of PCV. Vaccination Coverage by Selected Characteristics and Geographic Location For most of the vaccines assessed, uninsured children, and children with Medicaid or other nonprivate insurance, had lower coverage than did privately insured children (Table 2). Compared with privately insured children, coverage disparities were largest among uninsured children, ranging from 7.8 percentage points for the HepB birth dose to 33.8 percentage points for ≥2 doses of influenza vaccine. The proportion of children who received no vaccinations was higher among uninsured children (7.4%) than among those with private insurance (0.8%). Disparities were also observed for race/ethnicity (Supplementary Table 1, https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/81681), poverty level (Supplementary Table 2, https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/81682), and metropolitan statistical area §§ (MSA) (Supplementary Table 2, https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/81682) but tended to be smaller than those seen with health insurance status. Coverage varied widely by state/local area for many vaccines (Supplementary Table 3, https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/81683). Coverage with ≥1 dose of MMR was <90% in 20 states; only six states had coverage of 94% or higher (Figure). TABLE 2 Estimated vaccination coverage by age 24 months* among children born during 2015–2016, † by selected vaccines and doses and health insurance status § — National Immunization Survey-Child, United States, 2016–2018 Vaccine/Dose Health insurance status, % (95% CI) Private only (referent) (n = 12,702) Any Medicaid (n = 9,442) Other insurance (n = 2,141) Uninsured (n = 774) DTaP¶ ≥3 doses 96.9 (96.3–97.5) 91.8 (90.5–93.1)** 93.9 (92.2–95.3)** 80.6 (75.2–85.5)** ≥4 doses 87.1 (85.7–88.5) 75.8 (73.6–77.9)** 78.8 (75.4–82.0)** 59.8 (53.8–65.9)** Poliovirus (≥3 doses) 96.1 (95.4–96.7) 90.7 (89.3–92.0)** 92.3 (90.4–94.0)** 79.3 (73.9–84.3)** MMR (≥1 dose)†† 93.7 (92.8–94.5) 88.6 (87.0–90.1)** 89.8 (87.6–91.8)** 73.2 (67.4–78.7)** Hib§§ Primary series 95.7 (94.5–96.8) 90.7 (89.3–92.1)** 93.7 (91.9–95.1) 78.4 (72.8–83.5)** Full series 85.5 (83.7–87.1) 75.9 (73.8–78.0)** 79.1 (75.8–82.1)** 58.1 (52.1–64.2)** HepB Birth dose¶¶ 75.6 (73.9–77.2) 76.1 (74.0–78.1) 68.2 (64.3–71.9)** 67.8 (61.9–73.2)** ≥3 doses 93.0 (91.8–94.0) 90.0 (88.5–91.4)** 91.9 (89.9–93.6) 78.6 (73.3–83.5)** Varicella (≥1 dose)†† 93.2 (92.3–94.0) 88.6 (86.9–90.1)** 89.1 (86.8–91.2)** 70.3 (64.5–75.9)** PCV ≥3 doses 94.9 (93.5–96.0) 90.3 (88.9–91.7)** 92.0 (90.1–93.7)** 77.2 (71.7–82.4)** ≥4 doses 87.3 (85.6–88.8) 76.8 (74.7–78.9)** 80.9 (77.7–83.9)** 62.5 (56.7–68.3)** HepA ≥1 dose 87.5 (85.9–89.0) 83.7 (81.9–85.4)** 84.0 (81.2–86.6)** 65.5 (59.7–71.3)** ≥2 doses (by 35 months) 80.5 (77.9–83.1) 75.2 (72.2–78.0)** 76.8 (71.3–81.9) 48.2 (41.0–56.0)** Rotavirus (by 8 months)*** 83.5 (81.9–85.0) 65.9 (63.5–68.1)** 72.4 (68.5–76.0)** 59.8 (53.8–65.5)** Influenza (≥2 doses)††† 68.5 (66.6–70.4) 48.2 (45.9–50.5)** 52.7 (48.6–56.9)** 34.7 (29.4–40.7)** Combined 7-vaccine series§§§ 75.4 (73.5–77.2) 64.3 (62.0–66.6)** 65.9 (62.1–69.6)** 46.7 (40.9–52.9)** No vaccinations 0.8 (0.6–1.0) 1.2 (0.9–1.6) 1.8 (1.2–2.6)** 7.4 (4.7–10.7)** Abbreviations: CI = confidence interval; DTaP = diphtheria, tetanus toxoids, and acellular pertussis vaccine; HepA = hepatitis A vaccine; HepB = hepatitis B vaccine; Hib = Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine; MMR = measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine; PCV = pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. * Includes vaccinations received by age 24 months (before the day the child turns 24 months), except for the HepB birth dose, rotavirus vaccination, and ≥2 HepA doses by 35 months. For all vaccines, except the HepB birth dose and rotavirus vaccination, the Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate vaccination coverage to account for children whose vaccination history was ascertained before age 24 months (35 months for ≥2 HepA doses). † Data for the 2015 birth year are from survey years 2016, 2017, and 2018; data for the 2016 birth year are considered preliminary and come from survey years 2017 and 2018 (data from survey year 2019 are not yet available). § Children’s health insurance status was reported by parent or guardian. “Other insurance” includes the Children’s Health Insurance Program, military insurance, coverage via the Indian Health Service, and any other type of health insurance not mentioned elsewhere. ¶ Includes children who might have received diphtheria and tetanus toxoids vaccine or diphtheria, tetanus toxoids, and pertussis vaccine. ** Statistically significant (p<0.05) difference compared with the referent group. †† Includes children who might have received measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella combination vaccine. §§ Hib primary series: receipt of ≥2 or ≥3 doses, depending on product type received; full series: primary series and booster dose, which includes receipt of ≥3 or ≥4 doses, depending on product type received. ¶¶ One dose HepB administered from birth through age 3 days. *** Includes ≥2 doses of Rotarix monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1), or ≥3 doses of RotaTeq pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5). The maximum age for the final rotavirus dose is 8 months, 0 days. ††† Doses must be at least 24 days apart (4 weeks with a 4-day grace period). §§§ The combined 7-vaccine series (4:3:1:3*:3:1:4) includes ≥4 doses of DTaP, ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine, ≥1 dose of measles-containing vaccine, the full series of Hib (≥3 or ≥4 doses, depending on product type), ≥3 doses of HepB, ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine, and ≥4 doses of PCV. FIGURE Estimated coverage with ≥1 dose of MMR by age 24 months among children born 2015–2016* — National Immunization Survey-Child, United States, 2016–2018 Abbreviations: DC = District of Columbia; MMR = measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine. * Data for the 2015 birth year are from survey years 2016, 2017, and 2018; data for the 2016 birth year are considered preliminary and come from survey years 2017 and 2018 (data from survey year 2019 are not yet available). The figure is a map of the United States showing the estimated coverage with ≥1 dose of MMR by age 24 months among children born 2015–2016, using data from the National Immunization Survey-Child from 2016 to 2018. Trends in Vaccination Coverage Vaccination coverage was stable by single birth year from 2011 through 2016 (https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/imz-managers/coverage/childvaxview/pubs-presentations/NIS-child-vac-coverage-estimates-2014-2018-tables.html#supp-figure-01), except for an increase in ≥2 doses of HepA by age 35 months from 71.1% (2011) to 76.6% (2016). The proportion of children that received no vaccinations by age 24 months increased slightly across birth years 2011 through 2016, with an estimated change per year of 0.09 percentage points (https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/imz-managers/coverage/childvaxview/pubs-presentations/NIS-child-vac-coverage-estimates-2014-2018-tables.html#supp-figure-02). Only 1.3% of children born in 2015 and 2016 received no vaccinations (Table 1). Discussion Vaccination coverage by the second birthday among children born during 2015–2016 remained high, with small increases in coverage with hepatitis A and B and influenza vaccines; only 1.3% of children received no vaccinations. However, several opportunities for improvement were apparent. Coverage was lower for children without private health insurance, especially those with no insurance, as well as those living below the poverty level and in more rural areas. Vaccination coverage also varied by state, with 20 states having MMR coverage <90%. Coverage with ≥2 doses of influenza vaccine was the lowest among all recommended childhood vaccines. The importance of achieving and sustaining high vaccination coverage across all communities is illustrated by the 22 measles outbreaks occurring in the United States in 2019, with 1,249 measles cases identified during January 1–October 1, 2019 ( 3 ). Most cases have been among persons who were not vaccinated against measles. Pockets of low vaccination coverage, because of lack of access to vaccination services or to hesitancy resulting from the spread of inaccurate information about vaccines, increase the likelihood of a measles outbreak. Strategies are needed to increase access to vaccination services, identify communities at risk, and implement initiatives to counter inaccurate vaccine information ( 4 ). Lower vaccination coverage among children who are uninsured, insured by Medicaid or other nonprivate insurance, living below the poverty level, and living in rural areas suggests challenges with access to affordable vaccinations or optimal vaccination services. Uninsured children are eligible for vaccine at no cost through the Vaccines for Children ¶¶ program, but efforts to promote the program might not be reaching this population and therefore might need to be modified. Targeted programs to address logistical issues such as expanded office hours and transportation to vaccination appointments could facilitate access to vaccination services, regardless of the child’s type of insurance. Providers need to use every patient encounter to screen for and offer vaccinations. An analysis of NIS-Child data for children born during 2005–2015 found that disparities in coverage with ≥4 doses of diphtheria, tetanus toxoids, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) for those with Medicaid compared with those with private health insurance could have been reduced by 42% had opportunities for receipt of the fourth DTaP dose not been missed during visits when other vaccinations were received ( 5 ). The transition to reporting by birth year rather than by survey year more directly assesses recent changes in vaccination coverage and provides more interpretable estimates and more accurate comparisons to evaluate immunization information systems ( 2 , 6 , 7 ). With a standard age at assessment (e.g., 24 months), estimates by birth year might be slightly lower for some vaccines than were estimates by survey year, which on average, assessed vaccination by age 27.5 months. Trends in vaccination coverage by birth year and survey year are similar ( 8 ). Other changes include addition of assessment of ≥2 HepA doses by age 35 months to better reflect current ACIP recommendations and the addition of vaccination with 2 doses of influenza vaccine by age 24 months.*** The findings in this report are subject to at least two limitations. First, as with previous NIS-Child estimates by survey year, vaccination coverage estimates by birth year might be biased because of an incomplete sample frame, nonresponse, and underascertainment of vaccination ( 6 ). No evidence for change in survey accuracy from 2017 to 2018 was detected. Second, starting in 2018, the NIS-Child sample was drawn only from cellular telephone numbers. Vaccination coverage trends should thus be viewed with caution, although the effect of dropping the landline sample is likely small. Improvements in childhood vaccination coverage will require that parents and other caregivers have access to vaccination providers and believe in the safety and effectiveness of vaccines. Increased opportunity for vaccination can be facilitated through expanded access to health insurance, greater promotion of available vaccines through the Vaccines for Children program, and solutions to logistical challenges such as transportation, child care, and time off from work. Providers can improve vaccination coverage overall and reduce disparities by administering all recommended vaccines during office visits. Compelling and accessible educational materials, combined with effective techniques for providers to use when discussing vaccination, can be used to counter inaccurate claims and communicate the value of vaccines in protecting the health of children ( 9 ). In addition, actionable data at a local level are needed so that interventions can be targeted to areas at risk for outbreaks of measles and other vaccine-preventable diseases. More immunization information systems will contribute to this effort because they streamline their data collection processes and improve data quality ( 10 ). ††† Given low survey response rates, CDC is working to better assess accuracy of NIS-Child vaccination coverage estimates, evaluate new survey approaches (e.g., switching to an address-based sample frame), and integrate data from immunization information systems and, potentially, other data sources ( 7 ). Summary What is already known about this topic? The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends that children be vaccinated against 14 potentially serious illnesses before age 24 months. What is added by this report? Among children born in 2015 and 2016, coverage was high and stable for most vaccines. There were sociodemographic disparities in coverage, especially by health insurance status. The proportion of completely unvaccinated children remained small. What are the implications for public health practice? Coverage can be improved with increased access to providers and health insurance, administration of all recommended vaccines during office visits, and more effective patient education about vaccine safety and efficacy. Actionable local level data are a priority for creating targeted interventions to prevent outbreaks of measles and other vaccine-preventable diseases.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 5

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Socioeconomic differences in childhood vaccination in developed countries: a systematic review of quantitative studies.

          The reasons for vaccine hesitancy and its relation to individual socioeconomic status (SES) must be better understood. Areas covered: This review focused on developed countries with programs addressing major financial barriers to vaccination access. We systematically reviewed differences by SES in uptake of publicly funded childhood vaccines and in cognitive determinants (beliefs, attitudes) of parental decisions about vaccinating their children. Using the PRISMA statement to guide this review, we searched three electronic databases from January 2000 through April 2016. We retained 43 articles; 34 analyzed SES differences in childhood vaccine uptake, 7 examined differences in its cognitive determinants, and 2 both outcomes. Expert commentary: Results suggest that barriers to vaccination access persist among low-SES children in several settings. Vaccination programs could be improved to provide all mandatory and recommended vaccines 100% free of charge, in both public organizations and private practices, and to reimburse vaccine administration. Multicomponent interventions adapted to the context could also be effective in reducing these inequalities. For specific vaccines (notably for measles, mumps, and rubella), in UK and Germany, uptake was lowest among the most affluent. Interventions carefully tailored to respond to specific concerns of vaccine-hesitant parents, without reinforcing hesitancy, are needed.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Influences on Immunization Decision-Making among US Parents of Young Children.

            Objectives This study assessed influences on vaccination decisions among parents of young children and examined common vaccination information and advice sources. Methods Using panel samples of parents of children under 7 years, web-based surveys were conducted in 2012 (n = 2603) and 2014 (n = 2518). A vaccine decision-making typology (non-hesitant acceptors, hesitant acceptors, delayers, and refusers) was established and weighted population estimates of potential factors influencing parental vaccination decision (e.g., provider influence, source of information and advice) were computed by year and decision type. Results Delayers and refusers were more likely than acceptors to know someone whose child experienced a severe reaction to a vaccine or delayed/refused vaccine(s). High proportions of delayers (2012: 33.4%, 2014: 33.9%) and refusers (2012: 49.6%, 2014: 58.6%) reported selecting their healthcare provider based on whether the provider would allow them to delay/refuse vaccines. Providers were the most frequently reported trusted vaccine information source among all parents, though more often by acceptors than refusers (2012, 2014: p < 0.01). We found differing patterns of provider advice-seeking and internet as a reliable vaccine information source by group. Among those who had considered delay/refusal, trust in their healthcare provider's advice was the most common reason cited for their decision reversal. Conclusions for Practice Provider trust and communication along with varying degrees of personal-network influences likely contribute to immunization decisions of parents. Vaccine hesitant parents often seek providers amenable to accommodating their vaccine beliefs. Providers may benefit from vaccine communication training as their recommendations may influence hesitant parents to immunize their children.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: found
              Is Open Access

              Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Recommended Immunization Schedule for Children and Adolescents Aged 18 Years or Younger — United States, 2018

              In October 2017, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) approved the Recommended Immunization Schedule for Children and Adolescents Aged 18 Years or Younger — United States, 2018. The 2018 child and adolescent immunization schedule summarizes ACIP recommendations, including several changes from the 2017 immunization schedules, in three figures and footnotes to the figures. These documents can be found on the CDC immunization schedule website (https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/index.html). These immunization schedules are approved by ACIP (https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/acip/index.html), the American Academy of Pediatrics (https://www.aap.org), the American Academy of Family Physicians (https://www.aafp.org), and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (https://www.acog.org). Health care providers are advised to use the figures and the footnotes together. The full ACIP recommendations for each vaccine, including contraindications and precautions, can be found at https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/acip-recs/index.html. Providers should be aware that changes in recommendations for specific vaccines can occur between annual updates to the childhood/adolescent immunization schedules. If errors or omissions are discovered within the child and adolescent schedule, CDC posts revised versions on the CDC immunization schedule website.* Printable versions of the 2018 immunization schedules for children and adolescents aged 18 years or younger and ordering instructions for laminated versions and easy-to-read versions for parents also are available at the immunization schedule website. For further guidance on the use of each vaccine included in the schedules, including contraindications and precautions, health care providers are referred to the respective ACIP vaccine recommendations. Changes in the 2018 Child and Adolescent Immunization Schedule Changes in the 2018 immunization schedules for children and adolescents aged 18 years or younger include new or revised ACIP recommendations for poliovirus ( 1 ), influenza ( 2 ), and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines ( 3 ), and clarification of the recommendations for rotavirus and pneumococcal vaccines. Changes Affecting Multiple Portions of the Schedule Mention of MenHiberix (Hib-MenCY) vaccine has been removed from Figure 1 and Figure 2 and the relevant footnotes (Hib and meningococcal A,C,W,Y). Manufacturing of MenHibrix has been discontinued in the United States and all available doses have expired. Cover Page. Changes to the 2018 figure from the 2017 schedule † are as follows: A table was added outlining vaccine type, abbreviation, and brand names for vaccines discussed in the child/adolescent immunization schedule. Figure 2. Changes to the 2018 figure from the 2017 schedule are as follows: The maximum ages for the first and last doses in the rotavirus vaccination series were added to the rotavirus vaccine row. The inactivated poliovirus vaccine rows were edited to clarify the catch-up recommendations for children 4 years of age and older. Figure 3. Changes to the 2018 figure from that in the 2017 schedule are as follows: A reference was added to the HIV column of the figure. The reference provides additional information regarding HIV laboratory parameters and use of live vaccines. Within the pneumococcal conjugate row, stippling was added to heart disease/chronic lung disease, chronic liver disease, and diabetes columns to clarify that, in some situations, an additional dose of vaccine might be recommended for children with these conditions. Footnotes. The footnotes are presented in a new simplified format. The goal was to remove unnecessary text, preserve all pertinent information, and maintain clarity. This was accomplished by a transition from complete sentences to bullets, removal of unnecessary or redundant language, and formatting changes. In addition to this overall simplification, content changes were made as follows: The Hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) footnote was revised to include information regarding vaccination of <2,000-g infants born to hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg)–negative mothers. The poliovirus vaccine footnote was revised to include updated guidance for persons who received oral poliovirus vaccine as part of their vaccination series. The influenza vaccine footnote has been updated to indicate that live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) should not be used during the 2017–2018 influenza season. A reference link to the 2017–2018 season influenza recommendations has been added. The measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) footnote was updated to include guidance regarding the use of a third dose of mumps virus–containing vaccine during a mumps outbreak. The meningococcal vaccine footnote has been edited to create separate footnotes for MenACWY and MenB vaccines.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep
                MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep
                WR
                Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
                Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
                0149-2195
                1545-861X
                18 October 2019
                18 October 2019
                : 68
                : 41
                : 913-918
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Immunization Services Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, CDC.
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Holly A. Hill, hhill@ 123456cdc.gov , 404-639-8044.
                Article
                mm6841e2
                10.15585/mmwr.mm6841e2
                6802679
                31622284

                All material in the MMWR Series is in the public domain and may be used and reprinted without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

                Categories
                Full Report

                Comments

                Comment on this article

                Similar content 8

                Cited by 5

                Most referenced authors 65