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      Compost from willow biomass ( Salix viminalis L.) as a horticultural substrate alternative to peat in the production of vegetable transplants

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          Abstract

          Willow ( Salix viminalis L.) is a species well adapted to the environment conditions of central Europe. It is mainly cultivated for energy purposes as solid fuel. In this study, an evaluation of its suitability for other purposes was made using a 4-year old short rotation coppice (SRC) willow regrowth to produce chipped biomass which was composted. Four composting methods were used: without additives (WC), with the addition of nitrogen to narrow the C:N ratio (WN), with the addition of mycelium (WPG) and with the addition of mycelium and nitrogen (WPGN). A mixture of WC and WPGN composts was also prepared at 75:25% and 50:50% by volume. Composts, different proportion (25, 50 and 75%) of peat (SM) were evaluated for suitability as a substrate for tomato and cucumber transplant production. Tomato transplants produced in the medium were prepared from mixtures of willow composts (WPGN + WC(1) and WPGN + WC(2) and these mixtures with peat (WPGN + WC(1):SM and WPGN + WC(2):SM) were characterised as having the best parameters: plant height, lateral leaf span and number of leaves. Similarly, for cucumber transplants, better growth conditions than in peat substrate were obtained in the variant WPGN + WC(1) and WPGN + WC(1):SM. The addition of nitrogen to the composted biomass positively influenced the composting process. N concentration in the substrate was too high and toxic for the growth of tomato and cucumber transplants. At the end of the tomato and cucumber experiment, the nitrate content was 1510 and 2260 mg dm −3, respectively, in the WN substrate. Similarly, the high N–NO 3 content in the composted willow substrate with the addition of nitrogen and mycelium did not promote the growth of tomato and cucumber. Based on this research at least 25% of the mass of the peat can be replaced by different willow composts without having an adverse impact on seedling growth and with some of the willow compost mixtures this could be as high as 50%.

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          Composting of animal manures and chemical criteria for compost maturity assessment. A review.

          New livestock production systems, based on intensification in large farms, produce huge amount of manures and slurries without enough agricultural land for their direct application as fertilisers. Composting is increasingly considered a good way for recycling the surplus of manure as a stabilised and sanitised end-product for agriculture, and much research work has been carried out in the last decade. However, high quality compost should be produced to overcome the cost of composting. In order to provide and review the information found in the literature about manure composting, the first part of this paper explains the basic concepts of the composting process and how manure characteristics can influence its performance. Then, a summary of those factors such as nitrogen losses (which directly reduce the nutrient content), organic matter humification and compost maturity which affect the quality of composts produced by manure composting is presented. Special attention has been paid to the relevance of using an adequate bulking agent for reducing N-losses and the necessity of standardising the maturity indices due to their great importance amongst compost quality criteria.
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            PEATMAP: Refining estimates of global peatland distribution based on a meta-analysis

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              The future of food demand: understanding differences in global economic models

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                jozef.sowinski@upwr.edu.pl
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                21 October 2022
                21 October 2022
                2022
                : 12
                : 17617
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.411200.6, ISNI 0000 0001 0694 6014, Department of Horticulture, , Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, ; 50-375 Wrocław, Poland
                [2 ]GRID grid.411200.6, ISNI 0000 0001 0694 6014, Institute of Agroecology and Crop Production, , Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, ; 50-375 Wrocław, Poland
                [3 ]GRID grid.411200.6, ISNI 0000 0001 0694 6014, Institute of Soil Sciences, Plant Nutrition and Environmental Protection, , Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, ; 50-375 Wrocław, Poland
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6020-3975
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4611-9897
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0130-181X
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7793-8396
                Article
                22406
                10.1038/s41598-022-22406-7
                9587216
                36271107
                0dfcb2bc-82d4-4935-9914-27f9bf19be9a
                © The Author(s) 2022

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 8 April 2022
                : 14 October 2022
                Funding
                Funded by: The research is co-financed under the Leading Reasarch Groups support project from the subsidy increased for the period 2020–2025 in the amount of 2% of the subsidy referred to Art. 387 (3) of the Law of 20 July 2018 on Higher Education and Science, obtained in 2019.
                Award ID: Art. 387 (3) of the Law of 20 July 2018 on Higher Education and Science
                Award Recipient :
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                © The Author(s) 2022

                Uncategorized
                plant sciences,environmental sciences
                Uncategorized
                plant sciences, environmental sciences

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