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      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      The Post-Embargo Open Access Citation Advantage: It Exists (Probably), It’s Modest (Usually), and the Rich Get Richer (of Course)

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      PLoS ONE

      Public Library of Science

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          Abstract

          Many studies show that open access (OA) articles—articles from scholarly journals made freely available to readers without requiring subscription fees—are downloaded, and presumably read, more often than closed access/subscription-only articles. Assertions that OA articles are also cited more often generate more controversy. Confounding factors (authors may self-select only the best articles to make OA; absence of an appropriate control group of non-OA articles with which to compare citation figures; conflation of pre-publication vs. published/publisher versions of articles, etc.) make demonstrating a real citation difference difficult. This study addresses those factors and shows that an open access citation advantage as high as 19% exists, even when articles are embargoed during some or all of their prime citation years. Not surprisingly, better (defined as above median) articles gain more when made OA.

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          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: found
          Is Open Access

          Self-Selected or Mandated, Open Access Increases Citation Impact for Higher Quality Research

          Background Articles whose authors have supplemented subscription-based access to the publisher's version by self-archiving their own final draft to make it accessible free for all on the web (“Open Access”, OA) are cited significantly more than articles in the same journal and year that have not been made OA. Some have suggested that this “OA Advantage” may not be causal but just a self-selection bias, because authors preferentially make higher-quality articles OA. To test this we compared self-selective self-archiving with mandatory self-archiving for a sample of 27,197 articles published 2002–2006 in 1,984 journals. Methdology/Principal Findings The OA Advantage proved just as high for both. Logistic regression analysis showed that the advantage is independent of other correlates of citations (article age; journal impact factor; number of co-authors, references or pages; field; article type; or country) and highest for the most highly cited articles. The OA Advantage is real, independent and causal, but skewed. Its size is indeed correlated with quality, just as citations themselves are (the top 20% of articles receive about 80% of all citations). Conclusions/Significance The OA advantage is greater for the more citable articles, not because of a quality bias from authors self-selecting what to make OA, but because of a quality advantage, from users self-selecting what to use and cite, freed by OA from the constraints of selective accessibility to subscribers only. It is hoped that these findings will help motivate the adoption of OA self-archiving mandates by universities, research institutions and research funders.
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            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: found
            Is Open Access

            Open access publishing, article downloads, and citations: randomised controlled trial

            Objective To measure the effect of free access to the scientific literature on article downloads and citations. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting 11 journals published by the American Physiological Society. Participants 1619 research articles and reviews. Main outcome measures Article readership (measured as downloads of full text, PDFs, and abstracts) and number of unique visitors (internet protocol addresses). Citations to articles were gathered from the Institute for Scientific Information after one year. Interventions Random assignment on online publication of articles published in 11 scientific journals to open access (treatment) or subscription access (control). Results Articles assigned to open access were associated with 89% more full text downloads (95% confidence interval 76% to 103%), 42% more PDF downloads (32% to 52%), and 23% more unique visitors (16% to 30%), but 24% fewer abstract downloads (−29% to −19%) than subscription access articles in the first six months after publication. Open access articles were no more likely to be cited than subscription access articles in the first year after publication. Fifty nine per cent of open access articles (146 of 247) were cited nine to 12 months after publication compared with 63% (859 of 1372) of subscription access articles. Logistic and negative binomial regression analysis of article citation counts confirmed no citation advantage for open access articles. Conclusions Open access publishing may reach more readers than subscription access publishing. No evidence was found of a citation advantage for open access articles in the first year after publication. The citation advantage from open access reported widely in the literature may be an artefact of other causes.
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              Author and article information

              Contributors
              Role: Editor
              Journal
              PLoS One
              PLoS ONE
              plos
              plosone
              PLoS ONE
              Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
              1932-6203
              22 August 2016
              2016
              6 September 2016
              : 11
              : 8
              Affiliations
              Michigan Publishing, University Library, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America
              GERMANY
              Author notes

              Competing Interests: The author has declared that no competing interests exist.

              • Conceived and designed the experiments: JO.

              • Performed the experiments: JO.

              • Analyzed the data: JO.

              • Wrote the paper: JO.

              Article
              PONE-D-16-16406
              10.1371/journal.pone.0159614
              4993511
              27548723
              © 2016 Jim Ottaviani

              This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

              Page count
              Figures: 4, Tables: 0, Pages: 11
              Product
              Funding
              This work was supported by the University of Michigan, University Library Research and Creative Projects Committee; Michigan Publishing. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
              Categories
              Research Article
              Science Policy
              Open Science
              Open Access
              Research and Analysis Methods
              Scientific Publishing
              Publication Practices
              Open Access
              Research and Analysis Methods
              Research Facilities
              Information Centers
              Institutional Repositories
              Research and Analysis Methods
              Research Assessment
              Peer Review
              Physical Sciences
              Mathematics
              Statistics (Mathematics)
              Confidence Intervals
              Social Sciences
              Economics
              Labor Economics
              Employment
              Careers
              Physical Sciences
              Medicine and Health Sciences
              Engineering and Technology
              Custom metadata
              Data are available in anonymized form via Deep Blue repository (URL: deepblue.lib.umich.edu/data; DOI: 10.7302/Z2KH0K8V).

              Uncategorized

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