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      The global compendium of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus occurrence

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          Abstract

          Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the main vectors transmitting dengue and chikungunya viruses. Despite being pathogens of global public health importance, knowledge of their vectors’ global distribution remains patchy and sparse. A global geographic database of known occurrences of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus between 1960 and 2014 was compiled. Herein we present the database, which comprises occurrence data linked to point or polygon locations, derived from peer-reviewed literature and unpublished studies including national entomological surveys and expert networks. We describe all data collection processes, as well as geo-positioning methods, database management and quality-control procedures. This is the first comprehensive global database of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus occurrence, consisting of 19,930 and 22,137 geo-positioned occurrence records respectively. Both datasets can be used for a variety of mapping and spatial analyses of the vectors and, by inference, the diseases they transmit.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas

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            The global distribution and burden of dengue

            Dengue is a systemic viral infection transmitted between humans by Aedes mosquitoes 1 . For some patients dengue is a life-threatening illness 2 . There are currently no licensed vaccines or specific therapeutics, and substantial vector control efforts have not stopped its rapid emergence and global spread 3 . The contemporary worldwide distribution of the risk of dengue virus infection 4 and its public health burden are poorly known 2,5 . Here we undertake an exhaustive assembly of known records of dengue occurrence worldwide, and use a formal modelling framework to map the global distribution of dengue risk. We then pair the resulting risk map with detailed longitudinal information from dengue cohort studies and population surfaces to infer the public health burden of dengue in 2010. We predict dengue to be ubiquitous throughout the tropics, with local spatial variations in risk influenced strongly by rainfall, temperature and the degree of urbanisation. Using cartographic approaches, we estimate there to be 390 million (95 percent credible interval 284-528) dengue infections per year, of which 96 million (67-136) manifest apparently (any level of clinical or sub-clinical severity). This infection total is more than three times the dengue burden estimate of the World Health Organization 2 . Stratification of our estimates by country allows comparison with national dengue reporting, after taking into account the probability of an apparent infection being formally reported. The most notable differences are discussed. These new risk maps and infection estimates provide novel insights into the global, regional and national public health burden imposed by dengue. We anticipate that they will provide a starting point for a wider discussion about the global impact of this disease and will help guide improvements in disease control strategies using vaccine, drug and vector control methods and in their economic evaluation. [285]
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              Sample selection bias and presence-only distribution models: implications for background and pseudo-absence data

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sci Data
                Sci Data
                Scientific Data
                Nature Publishing Group
                2052-4463
                07 July 2015
                2015
                : 2
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Spatial Ecology and Epidemiology Group, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford , South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
                [2 ] Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics,University of Oxford , Oxford, UK
                [3 ] Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington , Seattle, USA
                [4 ] Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California , Davis, CA, USA
                [5 ] Center for Vectorborne Diseases, University of California , Davis, CA, USA
                [6 ] Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health , Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
                [7 ] Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University , Fort Collins, CO, USA
                [8 ] National Dengue Control Program, Ministry of Health , Brasilia, DF, Brazil
                [9 ] European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control , Stockholm, Sweden
                [10 ] Avia-GIS , Zoersel, Belgium
                [11 ] Environmental Research Group Oxford Ltd, Department of Zoology , South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK
                [12 ] Eijkman-Oxford Clinical Research Unit , Jakarta, Indonesia
                [13 ] Center for Research, Diagnostics and Vaccine Development, Centers for Disease Control , Taipei, Taiwan (ROC)
                Author notes
                [a ] S.I.H. (email: simon.i.hay@ 123456gmail.com
                []

                M.U.G.K. drafted the manuscript with editorial input from J.P.M. and S.I.H. and approval from all authors. M.E.S. coordinated and compiled the data collection. K.A.D., A.M., M.U.G.K. and F.M.S. compiled the data records. M.U.G.K. performed database standardisation and technical validation. C.M.B., C.G.M., R.G.C., G.E.C., I.R.F.E., H.J.T., W.V.B., F.S., G.H., O.J.B. and G.R.W.W. provided additional data and geo-positioning. S.I.H. conceived the database design and advised on standardisation and validation procedures.

                sdata201535
                10.1038/sdata.2015.35
                4493829
                Copyright © 2015, Macmillan Publishers Limited

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 Metadata associated with this Data Descriptor is available at http://www.nature.com/sdata/ and is released under the CC0 waiver to maximize reuse.

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