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      Industrial Trans Fatty Acid and Serum Cholesterol: The Allowable Dietary Level

      1 , * , 2

      Journal of Lipids

      Hindawi

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          Abstract

          Trans fatty acid (TFA) from partially hydrogenated oil is regarded as the worst dietary fatty acid per gram due to its role in coronary heart disease. TFA consumption is decreasing worldwide, but some but not all observational studies indicate that TFA intake has little relevance to serum cholesterol levels in populations with low TFA intake (<1% E [percentage of total energy intake], <approximately 2 g/day). Few intervention trials examined the effect of TFAs on blood cholesterol at relatively low levels (<2% E); no definite evidence is available on the tolerable upper level of the intake. A series of our intervention studies in Japanese suggested that an industrial TFA intake at <1% E does not influence the serum cholesterol level. To establish allowable level, we must consider not only the dietary level of TFAs, but also the composition of dietary fats simultaneously consumed, that is, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. These fatty acids strengthen or counteract the adverse effect of TFAs on serum cholesterol levels. In this review we describe the complex situation of the cardiovascular effects of industrial TFAs. The relationship between dietary industrial TFAs and concentration of plasma cholesterol should be evaluated from the viewpoint of dietary patterns rather than TFAs alone.

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          Most cited references 58

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          Trans fatty acids and cardiovascular disease.

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            Dietary fat intake and the risk of coronary heart disease in women.

            The relation between dietary intake of specific types of fat, particularly trans unsaturated fat and the risk of coronary disease remains unclear. We therefore studied this relation in women enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study. We prospectively studied 80,082 women who were 34 to 59 years of age and had no known coronary disease, stroke, cancer, hypercholesterolemia, or diabetes in 1980. Information on diet was obtained at base line and updated during follow-up by means of validated questionnaires. During 14 years of follow-up, we documented 939 cases of nonfatal myocardial infarction or death from coronary heart disease. Mutivariate analyses included age, smoking status, total energy intake, dietary cholesterol intake, percentages of energy obtained from protein and specific types of fat, and other risk factors. Each increase of 5 percent of energy intake from saturated fat, as compared with equivalent energy intake from carbohydrates, was associated with a 17 percent increase in the risk of coronary disease (relative risk, 1.17; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.97 to 1.41; P=0.10). As compared with equivalent energy from carbohydrates, the relative risk for a 2 percent increment in energy intake from trans unsaturated fat was 1.93 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.43 to 2.61; P<0.001); that for a 5 percent increment in energy from monounsaturated fat was 0.81 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.65 to 1.00; P=0.05); and that for a 5 percent increment in energy from polyunsaturated fat was 0.62 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.46 to 0.85; P= 0.003). Total fat intake was not signficantly related to the risk of coronary disease (for a 5 percent increase in energy from fat, the relative risk was 1.02; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.97 to 1.07; P=0.55). We estimated that the replacement of 5 percent of energy from saturated fat with energy from unsaturated fats would reduce risk by 42 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 23 to 56; P<0.001) and that the replacement of 2 percent of energy from trans fat with energy from unhydrogenated, unsaturated fats would reduce risk by 53 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 34 to 67; P<.001). Our findings suggest that replacing saturated and trans unsaturated fats with unhydrogenated monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats is more effective in preventing coronary heart disease in women than reducing overall fat intake.
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              Effect of dietary trans fatty acids on high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in healthy subjects.

              Fatty acids that contain a trans double bond are consumed in large amounts as hydrogenated oils, but their effects on serum lipoprotein levels are unknown. We placed 34 women (mean age, 26 years) and 25 men (mean age, 25 years) on three mixed natural diets of identical nutrient composition, except that 10 percent of the daily energy intake was provided as oleic acid (which contains one cis double bond), trans isomers of oleic acid, or saturated fatty acids. The three diets were consumed for three weeks each, in random order. On the oleic acid diet, the mean (+/- SD) serum values for the entire group for total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were 4.46 +/- 0.66. 2.67 +/- 0.54, and 1.42 +/- 0.32 mmol per liter (172 +/- 26, 103 +/- 21, and 55 +/- 12 mg per deciliter), respectively. On the trans-fatty-acid diet, the subjects' mean HDL cholesterol level was 0.17 mmol per liter (7 mg per deciliter) lower than the mean value on the diet high in oleic acid (P less than 0.0001; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.13 to 0.20 mmol per liter). The HDL cholesterol level on the saturated-fat diet was the same as on the oleic acid diet. The LDL cholesterol level was 0.37 mmol per liter (14 mg per deciliter) higher on the trans-fatty-acid diet than on the oleic acid diet (P less than 0.0001; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.28 to 0.45 mmol per liter) and 0.47 mmol per liter (18 mg per deciliter) higher on the saturated-fat diet (P less than 0.001; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.39 to 0.55 mmol per liter) than on the oleic acid diet. The effects on lipoprotein levels did not differ between women and men. The effect of trans fatty acids on the serum lipoprotein profile is at least as unfavorable as that of the cholesterol-raising saturated fatty acids, because they not only raise LDL cholesterol levels but also lower HDL cholesterol levels.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Lipids
                J Lipids
                JL
                Journal of Lipids
                Hindawi
                2090-3030
                2090-3049
                2017
                30 August 2017
                : 2017
                Affiliations
                1Department of Food and Nutrition, Toyama College, 444 Mizuguchi, Gankai-ji, Toyama 930-0193, Japan
                2Kyushu University, 5-38-23 Najima, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 813-0043, Japan
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Kamal A. Amin

                Article
                10.1155/2017/9751756
                5603143
                Copyright © 2017 Hiroyuki Takeuchi and Michihiro Sugano.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review Article

                Biochemistry

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