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      Industrial Trans Fatty Acid and Serum Cholesterol: The Allowable Dietary Level

      review-article
      1 , * , 2
      Journal of Lipids
      Hindawi

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          Abstract

          Trans fatty acid (TFA) from partially hydrogenated oil is regarded as the worst dietary fatty acid per gram due to its role in coronary heart disease. TFA consumption is decreasing worldwide, but some but not all observational studies indicate that TFA intake has little relevance to serum cholesterol levels in populations with low TFA intake (<1% E [percentage of total energy intake], <approximately 2 g/day). Few intervention trials examined the effect of TFAs on blood cholesterol at relatively low levels (<2% E); no definite evidence is available on the tolerable upper level of the intake. A series of our intervention studies in Japanese suggested that an industrial TFA intake at <1% E does not influence the serum cholesterol level. To establish allowable level, we must consider not only the dietary level of TFAs, but also the composition of dietary fats simultaneously consumed, that is, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. These fatty acids strengthen or counteract the adverse effect of TFAs on serum cholesterol levels. In this review we describe the complex situation of the cardiovascular effects of industrial TFAs. The relationship between dietary industrial TFAs and concentration of plasma cholesterol should be evaluated from the viewpoint of dietary patterns rather than TFAs alone.

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          Most cited references54

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          Comparison between plasma and erythrocyte fatty acid content as biomarkers of fatty acid intake in US women.

          Erythrocyte fatty acids may be superior to plasma fatty acids for reflecting long-term fatty acid intake because of less sensitivity to recent intake and a slower turnover rate. The objective was to compare the fatty acid content of erythrocytes with that of plasma with respect to their abilities to reflect usual fatty acid intake. Fatty acids in plasma and erythrocytes were measured by capillary gas-liquid chromatography in 306 US women aged 43-69 y. Fatty acid intake was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire, which was validated for measuring intakes of various fatty acids. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) in erythrocytes and plasma provided the strongest correlations with its intake, but erythrocyte DHA concentrations [Spearman's partial correlation coefficient (r(s))=0.56] were better than plasma DHA concentrations (r(s)=0.48) as a biomarker. Total trans fatty acids (r(s)=0.43) and total 18:1 trans isomers (r(s)=0.42) in erythrocytes were also more strongly correlated with intake than were those in plasma (r(s)=0.30 and r(s)=0.29, respectively). Moderate correlations were observed for linoleic acid (18:2n-6; erythrocytes, r(s)=0.24; plasma, r(s)=0.25), alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3; erythrocytes, r(s)=0.18; plasma, r(s)=0.23), and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3; erythrocytes, r(s)=0.38; plasma, r(s)=0.21). For polyunsaturated and trans fatty acids, correlations between intakes and biomarkers improved moderately when average intakes over previous years were used. Erythrocyte n-3 fatty acids of marine origin and trans fatty acid content are suitable biomarkers for long-term intake.
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            Intake of trans fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease among women

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              Dietary intake of trans fatty acids and systemic inflammation in women.

              trans Fatty acid (TFA) intake predicts risks of coronary artery disease and diabetes. Systemic inflammation may be involved in the pathogenesis of such conditions; however, relations between TFA intake and systemic inflammation are not well established. We investigated the relations between TFA intake and inflammatory markers. In 823 generally healthy women in the Nurses' Health Study I and II, concentrations of soluble tumor necrosis factor alpha receptors 1 and 2 (sTNF-R1, sTNF-R2), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Usual dietary intakes assessed from 2 semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaires were averaged for each subject. In age-adjusted analyses, TFA intake was positively associated with sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 (P for trend < 0.001 for each): sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 concentrations were 10% (+108 pg/mL; 95% CI: 50, 167 pg/mL) and 12% (+258 pg/mL; 138, 377 pg/mL) higher, respectively, in the highest intake quintile than in the lowest. These associations were not appreciably altered by adjustment for body mass index, smoking, physical activity, aspirin and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug use, alcohol consumption, and intakes of saturated fat, protein, n-6 and n-3 fatty acids, fiber, and total energy. Adjustment for serum lipid concentrations partly attenuated these associations, which suggests that they may be partly mediated by effects of TFAs on serum lipids. TFA intake was not associated with IL-6 or CRP concentrations overall but was positively associated with IL-6 and CRP in women with higher body mass index (P for interaction = 0.03 for each). TFA intake is positively associated with markers of systemic inflammation in women. Further investigation of the influences of TFAs on inflammation and of implications for coronary disease, diabetes, and other conditions is warranted.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Lipids
                J Lipids
                JL
                Journal of Lipids
                Hindawi
                2090-3030
                2090-3049
                2017
                30 August 2017
                : 2017
                : 9751756
                Affiliations
                1Department of Food and Nutrition, Toyama College, 444 Mizuguchi, Gankai-ji, Toyama 930-0193, Japan
                2Kyushu University, 5-38-23 Najima, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 813-0043, Japan
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Kamal A. Amin

                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0705-3941
                Article
                10.1155/2017/9751756
                5603143
                11e24f9d-2950-48b9-8044-0464c24268b5
                Copyright © 2017 Hiroyuki Takeuchi and Michihiro Sugano.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 7 April 2017
                : 12 June 2017
                : 25 July 2017
                Categories
                Review Article

                Biochemistry
                Biochemistry

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