To analyze the relationship between sperm mitochondrial membrane potential and sperm motility parameters by means of a computer-assisted sperm analyzer (CASA) and in-vitro fertilization rate(%FR). Semen samples were obtained from 26 men undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET). Informed consent was obtained from all men prior to the study. Samples were prepared using wash and swim-up method in HEPES-HTF medium. The sperm motility (%MOT), progressive motility (%PMOT), average path velocity (VAP) microm/s), straight line velocity (VSL) (micro m/s), curvilinear velocity (VCL) (microm/s) and %hyperactivated sperm (%HA), and the %FR were assessed. The samples were incubated in the presence of 2.0 mciromol/L of 5,5',6,6'-tetra-chloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolyl-carbocyanine iodide (JC-1) for 30 min at 37 degrees C in air and washed in PBS before flow cytometry (FACSCalibur: Becton Dickinson) analysis. The mitochondrial probe JC-1 was used to identify the mitochondrial membrane potential. The sperm was divided into three populations according to the fluorescence pattern as follows: the high mitochondrial membrane potential group (n=8), the moderate group (n=5), and the low group (n=13). Statistical analysis was performed using unpaired t-test. Significant differences were found between the high and the low groups in %MOT (91.1+/-8.5 vs 63.0+/-32.7, mean+/-SD), VAP (73.0+/-14.2 vs 52.1+/-12.5), VCL (127.0+/-28.1 vs 87.0+/-22.6), %HA (27.3+/-23.6 vs 7.2+/-9.0) and %FR [73.2 (48/56) vs 59.0 (69/117)]. No significant differences were found in other CASA parameters. When the sperm mitochondrial membrane potential increases, sperm motility parameters and fertility potential will also increase. The JC-1 dye method is useful to predict sperm fertility potential.